We are strongly encouraging you both to nominate* and to disseminate the call for nominations for the Awards listed below through your Networks.

The 2024 TWAS AWARDS. Deadline to submit nominations: 31 March 2022

AWARDS TO WOMEN SCIENTISTS.  Deadline to submit nominations: 20 April 2022

  • The 2022 TWAS-Abdool Karim Award:
  • The 2022 TWAS-Fayzah M. Al-Kharafi Award:

*Nominations from jury members serving in the relevant Committee will not be considered. Members of TWAS are not eligible.


Nominations can only be submitted electronically through the on-line platform by clicking on the:
New Nomination” button, to start a new nomination;
Resume”button, to resume working on saved nominations.

These buttons are available from dedicated web pages relevant to each TWAS award, please refer to the below links.

Counting on your collaboration, we send you our best regards.
TWAS Awards Secretariat
Distinguished member of TWAS,


I am pleased to bring to your attention that the call for nominations for the TWAS Awards is currently open.
The Academy provides nine ‘TWAS Awards’ to individual scientists from developing countries in recognition of an outstanding contribution to scientific knowledge in a field of science listed below, and/or to the application of science and technology to sustainable development.
These awards recognize achievements in: Agricultural Sciences; Biology;  Chemistry;  Earth, Astronomy and Space Sciences;  Engineering Sciences;  Mathematics;  Medical Sciences; Physics and Social Sciences (excluding Economic Sciences).

The outstanding contribution may be defined in relation to existing opportunities and realistic possibilities available to the candidate. This applies particularly to candidates from scientifically disadvantaged countries.

Each award is worth USD 10,000.
On behalf of the TWAS Council, I invite you to nominate qualified candidates to be considered for these awards.
Please especially consider women scientists and candidates from scientifically lagging countries.
Member of TWAS are not eligible. Nominations from jury members will not be considered.


The 2022 TWAS-Abdool Karim Award: This annual award is named after the distinguished TWAS Fellow Professor Quarraisha Abdool Karim.

 The 2022 TWAS-Fayzah M. Al-Kharafi Award: This annual award, named after the distinguished TWAS Fellow Professor Fayzah M. Al-Kharafi, rotates among various fields of science.

Member of TWAS are not eligible for these awards. Nominations from jury members will not be considered.

Counting on your collaboration, I send you my best regards.
Romain Murenzi

Prof. Romain Murenzi
Executive Director


Prof. Amin Mridha, representative of Bangladesh to the Asian Mycological Association, developed an innovation on Student Agriculture that is published in Academia letters from the USA and can be accessed through

Here’s an excerpt from the article “Student Agriculture: One Student One Integrated Agriculture Farm”: “An innovative concept to popularize agriculture among rural people in their home state to increase the productivity of agriculture through the student’s participation in the underdeveloped and developing countries with special reference to Bangladesh”.

Distinguished Fellows of TWAS,

I am pleased to inform you that the call for nominations for the awards listed below is now open, kindly requesting you to nominate suitable candidates.
It would also be greatly appreciated if you could help us disseminate the calls through your Networks.
Fellows of TWAS are not eligible for these awards. The deadline to submit complete nominations is 12 May 2021.
Contact email:


Nominations for the awards listed below can only be submitted electronically through the on-line platform by clicking on the:
New Nomination” button, to start a new nomination;
Resume” button, i.e. to resume working on saved nominations.
For each award, these buttons are available from dedicated web pages, details of which are given below.



  • Eligible candidates are scientists not older than 45 yearsof age who live and work in a developing country.
  • In 2021 the award will recognize a young scientist for achievements in astronomy and cosmology.
  • List of eligible countries:
  • The recipient receives USD10,000.


  • Eligible candidates are chemists not older than 40 yearsof age, national of Science and Technology Lagging countries.
  • All fields of Chemistry are eligible.
  • List of eligible countries:
  • The recipient receives USD5,000.




  • Eligible candidates for the 2021 award: Women scientists from Least Developing Countries(LDCs) for their contribution in an area, albeit multidisciplinary, directly relevant to the science of sustainability.
  • List of eligible countries:
  • The recipient receives USD 4,000.


  • Eligible candidates: Women scientists from Science and Technology Lagging countries.
  • Nominations for the 2021 award are invited in the field of Medical Sciences.
  • List of eligible countries:
  • The recipient receives USD 4,000.


  • Eligible candidates: Women scientists national of a Low Income African country.
  • The award recognizes scientific achievements inBiological Sciences.
  • The recipient receives USD 5,000.


Looking forward to receiving excellent candidates to be considered for these awards.
Counting on your collaboration, I send you my best regards.

Professor Romain Murenzi
TWAS Executive Director
The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) – for the advancement of science in developing countries
ICTP campus, Strada Costiera 11 – 34151 Trieste – Italy
web: – News:

Minutes of the 2019 Asian Mycological Association (AMA) meeting, Room 2 of the Mie Center For the Arts, Mie, Japan Wednesday, Friday 4th October, 2019

1. Thanks to retiring officers of Executive Committee

The new General Secretary of AMA, Kevin D. Hyde, called the 2019 AMA meeting to order at 10.00 am. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde introduced the AMA officers and country representatives present, and thanked members for attending the meeting. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde asked all the officers and country representatives of the meeting to introduce themselves briefly. After the brief introduction of the officers and country representatives of the meeting, the former Chairman of AMA, Xingzhong Liu addressed the meeting and thanked all the past AMA officers, executive committee members and country representatives for their enormous help during 2015-2019. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde then addressed the meeting and thanked 2015-2109 AMA officers; Chairman Xingzhong Liu (China), Vice-Chairman Vikineswary Sabaratnam (Malaysia), Vice-Chairman: Youn Su Lee (Korea) and General Secretary: Lei Cai (China). Secretary Kevin D. Hyde asked the participants whether there is any objection to appoint Cai Lei as an executive committee member and there were no objections. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde invited the new Chairman of AMA Saisamorn Lumyong to address the meeting. The AMA chairman Saisamorn Lumyong said she is the chairman of Thai Mycological Association as well and expects everyone’s help to good work for Asian Mycology.

Follow up: Letters to confirm the positions of the new Executive committee members will be issued.

2. Lack of Quorum at meetings

Secretary Kevin D. Hyde suggested, it is better to arrange online meetings as International Committee of Fungal Taxonomy. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde also mentioned that some country representatives are not active, for examples Cambodia, Kuwait, and Myanmar, so the need of active representatives from those countries was pointed out.

Follow up: The new Cambodian and Sri Lanka representatives have been added. We are looking for representatives from other Asian countries.

3. Confirmation of 2019 Awardees and future awards

Secretary Kevin D. Hyde and the AMA officers mentioned that the awardees selection procedure should be more transparent. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde stated that the current selection committee consists of 7 members and it is based on secret voting of the committee. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde and the officers discussed the importance of announcing the awardees at least 4 months earlier to the AMC meeting, so the awardees can attend the AMC meeting. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde and the officers further discussed that the organizer of the AMC should support the awardees to attend the AMC meeting. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde and the officers questioned whether two awards; AMA and IMA should be given in the 2021 AMC meeting, can one person get the two awards or two persons will be selected for the two awards, whether one committee is enough for the two awards or two separate committees are needed for two awards. The honorary member of AMA, Akira Suzuki said that it is better to have a single committee to select both awardees. Janet Jennifer Luangsa-Ard asked about the composition of the awardees’ selection committee and Secretary Kevin D. Hyde said it can be decided in a later meeting. The former Chairman of AMA, Xingzhong Liu said the awardees’ selection committee can select 2 candidates for the two awards. The president of Taiwan mycological society, Wei-Chiang Shen asked what the current criteria of selection of awardees are and Secretary Kevin D. Hyde said Taiwan didn’t propose any candidate in 2019 for AMA awards and pointed out that it is important to put forward candidates from all Asian countries for AMA awards and Secretary Kevin D. Hyde further mentioned that AMA committee can put forward 2 candidates for AMA awards. The Israel country representative said it is better to propose another award for young mycologists to encourage them. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde said it is better to give a best PhD student award for PhD holders not later than one year of graduation.

Secretary Kevin D. Hyde invited the former Chairman of AMA, Xingzhong Liu to announce 2019 AMA awardees. Xingzhong Liu announced that Prof. Davis Joseph Bagyaraj from India was selected for the Distinguished Asian Mycologist Award 2019, and Dr. Takashi Shirouzu from Japan was selected for the Young Asian Mycologist award. Xingzhong Liu further mentioned that the awardees were selected based on their publication records, their recognition in scientific communities and social services related to mycology. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde asked whether there is any objection for the awardees and nobody in the meeting had objections. The Japanese country representative said the awardees should be published in the AMA webpage with the selection criteria.

Follow up: Certificates will be issued and the results published in AJOM news

4. AMC 2021

Secretary Kevin D. Hyde said there were 3 bids for AMC 2021, namely Malaysia, Korea and Thailand. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde suggested that it is better to organize a conference in between AMC 2019 – 2021, something like East Asian mycology conference, ASEAN mycology conference or West Asia mycology conference, under the AMA umbrella. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde further mentioned that if someone is willing to organize a conference in between AMC, the AMA is happy to support. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde asked the officers whether it is good to decide on the coming 2 AMC meetings in advance, and after some discussion it was agreed. The Israel country representative also mentioned that four years planning is more practical. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde announced the results of voting circulation for next AMC 2021, and out of 20 votes Thailand has received 10, Korea 7 and Malaysia 3. According to the results of voting Secretary Kevin D. Hyde mentioned that the next AMC 2021 will be held in Bangkok, Thailand and in 2023 it would be held in Korea (as long as they want it).

Follow up: Secretary Hyde will follow up and ask countries if they are willing to organise intermediate meetings.

5. Any other business

 Secretary Kevin D. Hyde said that the AMA Facebook page and Asian Journal of Mycology webpage should be updated, and he further mentioned that Chinese students will help AMA open a Weibo page for AMA news. Secretary Kevin D. Hyde proposed former Chairman of AMA, Xingzhong Liu as a honorary member of AMA and all the officers in the meeting seconded that. The Vietnam country representative proposed that the AMC host should support AMA awardees to attend the AMC meeting, and Secretary Kevin D. Hyde seconded it.

Follow up: Xingzhong Liu has been added as an honorary member of AMA and an email listed of AMA members will be put together

Secretary Kevin D. Hyde thanked all the country representatives and officers for participating the meeting and officially adjourned the 2019 AMA Meeting at 11:10 am.

Officers and country representatives of AMA meeting 2019 at Mie Center for the Arts, Mie, Japan

Editor in Chief: Kevin D Hyde, Jiang Na, others

Chairmanand office bearers


Xingzhong Liu

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P.R.China


Tae Soo Lee

Division of Life Sciences

University of Incheon

Incheon 406-840, Korea


Vikineswary Sabaratnam

Institute of Biological Sciences

Faculty of Science

University of Malaya

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

General Secretary

Lei Cai

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd.,Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P. R.China


l  Australasian    

Peter Buchanan

Private Bag 92170

Auckland Mail Centre

Auckland 1142

New Zealand

l  Bangladesh  

Amin Uddin Mridha

Plant Production Department

King Saud University

P.O.Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia

l  Cambodia    

Hean Vanhan

Deputy Director General

General Directorate of Agriculture (GDA)/ MAFF, Cambodia

No.54B/49F, Street 395-656, ToeukLaak 3, Tuol Kok, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

l  China    

Xingzhong Liu

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd., Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P.R.China

l  China    

Lei Cai

State Key Laboratory of Mycology

Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences

No. 3 1st Beichen West Rd.,Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, P. R.China

l  HongKong  

Lilian LP Vrijmoed

College of Science andEngineering

Department of Biology andChemistry

City University Hong Kong

Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, HongKong SAR

l  India      

Chandralata Raghukumar

313, Vainguinim Valley

Dona Paula, Goa, 403 004, India

l  Indonesia

Kartini Kramadibrata

Herbarium Bogoriense

Bidang Botani, Pusat Penelitian Biologi-LIPI

Cibinong Science Center (CSC)-LIPI

Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor

l  Iran

Rasoul Zare

Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran

l  Israel    

Oded Yarden

The Buck Family Chair Professorof Plant Pathology

Head, Dept. of Plant Pathologyand Microbiology

The Robert H. Smith Faculty ofAgriculture, Food and Environment

The Hebrew University ofJerusalemRehovot 76100


l  Japan    

Toru Okuda

Mycology & Metabolic Diversity Research Center

Tamagawa University Research Institute

6-1-1 Tamagawa-Gakuen, Machida

Tokyo 194-8610, Japan

l  Korea    

Tae Soo Lee

Division of Life Sciences

University of Incheon

Incheon 406-840, Korea

l  Kuwait  

Azza A.AlMusallam

Faculty of Science

PO Box 5969

Safat 13060


l  Laos

Phengsintham Pheng

Department of Biology

National University of Laos

P.O. Box T32, Xaysetha, Vientiane, Laos

l  Malaysia      

Vikineswary Sabaratnam

Institute of Biological Sciences

Faculty of Science

University of Malaya

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

l  Mongolia    

Tsetseg Baljinova

Laboratory of Microbiology

Institute of Biology

Mongolian Academy of Sciences



l  Myanmar    

Thida W. Ko Ko

Mushroom Research Centre

Chiang Mai


l  Nepal

Mahesh K. Adhikari

Adhikari Niwas

KUKL 4/536

Dakshin Tol


Lalitpur, Nepal

l  Philippines  

Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

Department of Biological Sciences

College of Science

University of Santo Tomas

España 1015 Manila


l  Russia

Larissa Vasilyeva

Institute of Biology & SoilScience

Far East Branch of the RussianAcademy of Sciences

Vladivostok 690022


l  Saudi Arabia

A.H. Bahkali

Botany and Microbiology Department

College of Science, King Saud University


Saudi Arabia

l  Singapore  

Teck Koon Tan

Department of Biological Science

National University of Singapore

14 Science Drive 4

Singapore 117543

l  Sri Lanka

Nimal Adikaram

Department of Botany

Faculty of Science

University of Peradeniya

Peradeniya (20400)

Sri Lanka

l  Taiwan  

Sung-Yuan Hsieh

Department of Botany

National Museum of Natural Science

Taichung, Taiwan 404

l  Thailand

Kasem Soytong

Biocontrol Research Unit andMycology Section

Department of Plant PestManagement

Faculty of AgriculturalTechnology

King Mongkut’s Institute ofTechnology Ladkrabang (KMITL)

Bangkok 10520


l  Vietnam

Min Lam Duong

Department of Microbiology andBiotechnology, Faculty of Biology

Hanoi National University ofEducation

136 Xuanthuy, Caugiay

Hanoi, Vietnam

l  Thailand

Kevin D. Hyde

PO Box 58

Bandoo Post Office

Muang, Chiang Rai 57100


l  Japan

Akira Suziki

Faculty of Education/Graduate School of Horticulture

Chiba University


Asian Mycological Congress 2011

12th International Marine and Freshwater Mycology Symposium

7-11 August 2011

The University of Incheon Convention Centre, Incheon, Korea, was the venue for the2011 AMC and IMFMS meetings, an impressive new campus of the University. 269participants attended from 22 countries, with host country fielding the highest number (163). The AMC programme included 72 oral presentations in 16 symposia,263 posters and five plenary lectures by Robert Samson (Fungi and food: Friends or enemies), Gareth Jones (Marine fungal diversity: How many species are there?), Toru Okuda (Mycology for mycology?), Ching-Hua Su (Fluconaole induceddrastic genetic change in Candidaalbicans), and Hyun-Sook Lee (Mycoviruses and mushrooms diseases and their detection systems).

The conference was opened by Prof. Tae-Soo Lee, Chair of the organizing committee who welcomed all the participants. Besides the scientific presentation we were also treated to a culture show and some wonderful photographs of mushrooms.

Two AMC awards were made at the meeting: Distinguished Mycologists 2011 award to Professor Kevin Hyde, Thailand and Young Mycologists award to Dr Lei Cai. There were a number of distinguished nominations considered by the search committee and set a very high standard for these new awards by AMC.

IMFMS12 attracted fewer participants than the very successful meeting in Taiwan in2009. The programme was reduced to four sessions with 19 oral presentations and20 posters. This prompted Gareth at the closing session to query whether the meeting had outlived its usefulness with the declining numbers of mycologists working on aquatic fungi. However many disagreed with this and the meeting inChina will decide the future of the IMFMS. Prof. Yang Soo Lee (Korea) offered to set up a website to promote IMFMS in the hope of attracting a wider audience for future meetings. We wish this venture every success.

I am grateful to the following for supplying summaries and photographs: Natarajan Velmurugan, Satinee Suetrong, Yang Soo Lee, Lei Cai and Hyeon-Su Ro.

Gareth Jones

Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences

University Malaysia

Asian Mycological Awards

Distinguished Asian Mycologist Award

Dr Kevin D. Hyde was given the award of Distinguished Asian Mycologist in August2011 at the Asian Mycological Congress for his services in promoting Asian Mycology. Dr Hyde has been Head and Associate Professor of the Institute of Excellence in Fungal Research, School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University,Chiang Rai since January 2008 and is also the Managing Director of the Mushroom Research Foundation, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Dr Hyde looking for freshwater fungi in southern France (photographed by Jacques Fornier)

Dr Hyde was the Coordinator of EASIANET from 2004 until 2007. This was an elected position in the body designated by CBD with the role to remove taxonomic impediments from the EastAsia region. Dr Hyde was also Chairman of the Mycological Association of Hong Kong between 2002-2007 which was inaugurated in 1997. As Chairman of the Asian Mycological Committee from 2007-2011 he promoted the study of mycology throughout the Asian region. He was editor-in-chief of Fungal Diversity for 11years, a journal that Dr Hyde introduced, and was also EIC of the Fungal Diversity Research Series, the International Journal of Agricultural Microbiology, and Mycology and is associate editor of eight other journals. DrHyde has published more than 800 refereed papers and of these 560 are in Sci journals. He has also published 17 books. Dr Hyde’s passion though is intraining students and he supervised some 20 postdoctoral fellows, more than 60PhD students, and 15 MPhil students up to now. Currently he is supervising/co-supervising more than 25 postgraduate students at Mae Fah Luang University,Thailand and in China.

Dr Hyde teaching his students in the MushroomResearch Centre classroom. Students from left to right: Marivic Cabenella,Nilam Wulanderi, Dr Iman Hidiyat, Dr Subbu and Mr Sophia

Dr Hyde’s academic career is a very unlikely success story as on three occasions it appeared he would opt for other career paths. When he was 15 and about to start his last year at high school his parents moved from Cheltenham to Poole, Dorset, UK. This had the unfortunate result that he had to restart his O-level studies because of a change in exam body syllabus and take his exams within 10 months. With four sultry O-level grades he was offered a job in a chrome plating factory as a chemical apprentice and his father,  John Hyde, recommended that he take this up. However, after discussions with the teachers at Poole Grammar School they persuaded his father to allow Kevin to pursue his A-levels which John fortunately accepted. Following his A-levels Dr Hyde carried out his B.Sc. in Zoology at Cardiff  University at the University of Wales between 1976 and 1979, followed by a one year M.Sc. at Portsmouth University. At this stage he decided to leave academia and carried out a one year Post graduate diploma in teaching and in August 1980 took up his first job as a high schoolteacher at Hurst School near Basingstoke. His strong desire to travel soon saw him travel to Seychelles, landing a teaching position where he spent 24 months teaching in a high school. He had maintained constant contact with Prof. Gareth Jones his M.Sc. program supervisor and in September 1984 he returned to Portsmouth University in UK and commenced his Ph.D. in Marine Mycology under the guidance of Professor Jones at University of Portsmouth. Never happy to be back in the UK, Dr Hyde finished his Ph.D. in two and a half years and moved to Brunei and again opted out of academia to take up yet another high school teaching position in this oil-rich state. In Brunei, he was able to continue his marine mycology research with the help of two microscopes borrowed from Prof Jones (Portsmouth University) and in about three years had published 50 international research articles. By 1989, Dr Hyde tired of high school teaching, migrated to Australia where he was jobless for a while.  After four months of seeking research or university positions in vain, disillusionment set in and he almost accepted that a career in research would never be possible for him. To make matters worse he walked through a glass door seriously injuring a knee cap which had to be removed, cleaned and replaced. Fortunately, Ian Moorhead who was the director of Department of Primary Industries, Queensland at this time,  saw Dr Hyde’s mycological potential and invited Dr Hyde for an interview as a NAQS scientist.Dr Hyde attended the interview on crutches but was offered the position. The subsequent new job surveying plant pathogens throughout north Queensland and Papua New Guinea set the tone for future research on tropical fungi. Although the NAQS job was pretty routine involving looking for 20 or so target organisms, he spent as much time as possible looking at other fungi of interest and by 2002 had more than 100 SCI publications, mostly unrelated to his work. Dr Hyde desperately wanted to get into a University so he could concentrate on research and teach research students. His dream came true in November 2002 at the age of 37, when he was offered a tenured lectureship at the Department of Botany in the University of Hong Kong where he remained for 15 years before moving to Thailand. He was the director of the Centre for Research in Fungal Diversity, Department of Ecology & Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong from 1998 to 2007. Throughout this time he was very much inspired by his Ph.D. supervisor, Professor Jones. During this time he gained a Doctor of Science degree in Biodiversity and Biology of Tropical Microfungi at the University of Wales. In 2008 Dr Hyde retired from his position in Hong Kong, as he wanted a life where he could live in a house with a garden and have a car and pets, much of which was not possible in the cramped Hong Kong lifestyle. It had also become seriously hard to get research funding in Hong Kong. His move to Mae Fah Luang University, Thailand  was purely by chance and mostly due to meeting the then Dean of Science, the late Prof Keith Syers. This move was a shear stroke of luck and since joining MFLU Dr Hyde has managed to develop a large hard working active research group.

April 2007, party at Dr Hyde’s small Hong Kong apartment, from left to right: Dr Rui lin Zhao, Dr Rampai Kodsueb, Dr (Joy)Ratchadawan Cheewangkoon, Dr Damodar Shenoy, Dr Zhang Ying, Dr Hyde As stated early Dr Hyde’s passion is to train young mycologists. His counsel to young researchers is always to persevere in their research, publish as often as they can and let the world see what research they are capable of, and be patient when trying to get a research position.Eventually because of their expertise and perseverance, they will be offered the jobs matching their visions. However he states “remember jobs for mycologists are few and far between, but so is a molecular mycologist who also understands morphology and thus a position will eventually materialize”. He always guides his students as follows, “I really want to see you developing yourselves. “Be a general mycologist and do not specialize on one genus”. He has said many times, “a Ph.D. trains you to run your own research group – advance science and train yourself to be a scientist. If you cannot get things done and push yourself what hope do you have when you leave the nest? So try to learn to push yourselves and achieve. You are working for yourselves not me and whatever you achieve will go towards your future – not mine. You are not doing a PhD just to get the title“Dr” in front of your name. If you are, then you should not continue, but quit now”.Dr Hyde’s students are represented by many nationalities from Asia, among them are Thais,Sri Lankans, Chinese, Laos, Myamarese, Vietnamese, Pilipino, Nepali and Indians. He also has one Kenyan MS student. Dr Hyde has provided a great deal of opportunities to young qualified students who were unable to find opportunities in their interest areas, and provide scholarships through the Mushroom Research Foundation for PhD’s in mycology.  This article is not enough to express and explain the good work Dr Hyde has done to promote mycology in the Asian region as well as worldwide. He strives to mold each of his students into renowned mycologists in their own right. In the recent round of IMA Young Mycologists awards,two out of the five young awardees (Australasia and Asia) were Dr Hyde’s previous students.  In Dr Hyde’s laboratory, we are budding mycologists, who have been taught, trained and mentored by Dr Hyde and would like to wish Dr Hyde all the very best and good luck as his endeavors to train and mould mycologists to salvage the world of mycology which is in dire need of many more mycologists.

Samantha Chandranath Karunarathna

PhD Candidate

MaeFah Luang University,

Chiang Rai, Thailand

Dr. Lei Cai awarded the Young Mycologist Award in Asia

Dr. Lei Cai is one of the leading young mycologists in China. He is a Professor at the Institute of Microbiology,Chinese Academy of Sciences and has been working on the systematic and biodiversity of plant pathogenic, aquatic, coprophilous and thermophilic fungifor many years. For his outstanding achievements in his carrier life he received the Asian Mycological Association (AMA) Young Mycologist Award during the Asian mycological congress held in South Korea August 2011. This is the first time that AMA awarded a young mycologist in the region.

Dr. Lei Cai was graduated from Tsinghua University, Beijing,China in 1998 and joined to the Yunnan University, China as a research-assistant. As the turning step in to the field of mycology he has completed hisMSC in Mycology during 2000- 2002 in Yunnan University, China. He started hisPhD in 2002 under the supervision of Prof. Kevin D. Hyde in the University ofHong Kong. After the successful completion of his PhD, Dr. Cai joined R&Dcentre, Novozymes, Beijing as  a research scientist (2006-2009), and senior research scientist (2009-2010). For his invaluable achievement in the mycological research, Dr. Cai was awarded the prestigious “Hundred-Talent Program” of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in2010.

Dr Lei Cai has been a dedicated young mycologist in Asia and worldwide during the past decade. He has attained a notable number of publications including one monograph, 2 book chapters, 54 publications on international journals and these publications attained 378 citations (H’ Index=12). He accomplished 13 research projects, based on which he described 5 new genera, 48 new species and 7 new combinations. This exceptional contribution to the field of mycology is very appreciable considering the time in his career life as an active young scientist in the field.

Dr. Lei Cai is not only a talented researcher but also an active teacher. He conducts the courses on systematic mycology and phytopathology for the postgraduate students in CAS, and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science (CAAS). He also gave lectures in various international workshops, seminars and conferences. Dr. Cai is currently supervising 5 MSC students, 3 PhD students and 2 post doctoral associates.  He is popular among students as a talented and kind hearted teacher. As the executive associate editor, Dr. Cai played asignificant role in establishing and managing the new international journal“Mycology”. He is also an associate editor of Fungal Diversity and reviews papers for journals such as Biodiversity and Conservation, Journal of Plant Pathology, Plant Pathology, Plant Disease, Microbial Ecology, Mycologia, Mycoscience and Nova Hedwigia.

2011 Mycology in China

²  The Mycological Society of China

The Mycological Society of China (MSC), is an academic organization devoted to the research and extension of mycology in China. MSC, formerly a division of the Botanical Society of China (BSC) (1980-1992), became an independent society in May 1993. Currently there are 12 professional committees, 6 working committees and nearly 3,000 Chinese and international members. MSC is a sustainable member of the International Mycological Association and Asian Mycological Association.


1. Divisionof fungal diversity and systematic mycology

2. Divisionof plant pathogenic fungus

3. Divisionof entomogenous fungus

4. Divisionof medical mycology

5. Divisionof edible fungi

6. Divisionof pharmaceutical fungi

7. Divisionof industrial fungi

8. Divisionof myxomycetes

9. Divisionof lichenology

10.Division of mycorrhiza and endophytic fungi

11.Division of fungal chemistry

12.Division of fungal genetics and molecular biology

MSC focuses on the development offungal science in China and international community and aims to provide a platform to meet the needs of a demanding and growing field, and to serve and engage dialogue between Chinese mycologists and the international community. To publish journals and organize international conferences, national annual meetings, various symposia and workshops are the main tasks of the society.

Highlights of 2011

l  TheTenth China-Korea Joint Symposium was held at Shandong Agricultural University,Tai’an city on 22-25 April, 2011. Fifteen representatives from Korea and 60representatives from China attended this symposium. Fourteen speeches covering fungal diversity, phylogeny and evolution, edible and medicinal fungi and otheraspects were reported on the meeting.

l  Thetenth mycological symposium of cross-strait sponsored by Mycological Society ofChina and Mycological Society of Taiwan, was held at Wuhan Agriculture University on 15-18 July, 2011. Sixteen members of Mycological Society of Taiwanattended this symposium. Fifty representatives presented their latest researchoutcomes. To enhance the exchange and co-operation between mycologists from Cross-Taiwan Straits and facilitate the development in mycology, the jointsymposium has been run every two years since 1993 in mainland or Taiwan respectively.

l  The2011 MSC annual meeting was held in Guangzhou on 15-17 August. More than 400members of MSC participated this annual meeting. There are 150 presentations in11 sections. These reports exhibited the latest research results on thefollowed aspects: fungal diversity and systematics, plant pathology, medicalmycology, edible mushroom, pharmaceutical fungi, industrial fungi, myxomycete,mycorrhiza and endophytic fungi, fungal chemistry, fungal genetics andmolecular biology. Postgraduate student awards were given to six studentpresentations.

l  China’sFungal Genome Initiative (CFGI) proposed by the MSC are now investing greatefforts for fungal genomics. More than 60 species of plant, insect and nematodepathogens as well as the mushrooms and mycorrhizal fungi have been or are beingsequenced. To incorporate the joint efforts, the first CFGI Symposium wassuccessfully held in Shanghai on September 20-22, 2009. The studies on fungalgenomics have been extensively advanced for the past two years. To continuepromoting fungal genomics studies in China, the second CFGI symposium wasorganized by MSC and Yunnan University on October 23-25, 2011. Following theinvited talks, a workshop was held for sharing the techniques/methods forgenomic data analysis.

l  “MiniSymposium on Advances in Fungal Genomics and Evolution – In Celebration of theFounding of the State Key Laboratory of Mycology” kicked off at the Instituteof Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, on 22 October. Sixprestigious international mycologists were invited to give presentations atthis mini-symposium. The speakers shared their state-of-art research and ideasin fungal genomics and evolution with over 140 Chinese participants of thismini-symposium.


l  An official journal of Mycological Society of China entitled “Mycology, an international journal on fungalbiology” had been launched in January 2010 and published by Taylor& Francis. Mycology publishes papers on all aspects of mycology includinglichens, with preference in systematics, ecology and biodiversity,genomics and proteomics, and molecular phylogeny and evolution. Otherappreciate subjects for the journal include bioinformatics, physiology andbiochemistry, pathology, morphology development, cell biology, genetics,molecular biology, fungal enzymology, fungal metabolites and new techniques.

Mycosystemais a merger of former Acta Mycologica Sinica (1982-1997) and Mycosystema(1987-1997) sponsored by the Mycological Society of China and the Institute ofMicrobiology, Chinese Academy of Science and published bimonthly. The journalincludes original papers and short communications based on research results, aswell as literature and book reviews dealing with various aspects of mycology. Mycosystemapublishes papers mainly in the fields of taxonomy, biodiversity, molecularsystematics of fungi. The papers related to ecology, phytopathology,physiology, genetics, medical mycology, industrial mycology and veterinarymycology are also encouraged and acceptable.

Journal of Fungal Researchis a quarterly journal sponsored by MSC and Jilin Agricultural University andwas launched in December 2003. The journal publishes the papers concerning thescientific researches on the organisms studied by mycologists, which areaccepted as fungi in the Kingdom (Mycota), pseudofungi and slime molds alongwith bacteria (Monera), plants (Plantae), animals (Animalia) and protists(Protista). The journal of FungalResearch is a window for academic exchange of scientific research,technology and education of pan-fungi.

Indian Mycology (2010-2011)

Fungalresearch is being carried out in several universities and research institutionsin India, each group having established its own special niche.

Damodar Shenoy at the Institute of MicrobialTechnology, Chandigarh, is interested in phylogeny and molecular diversity ofplant pathogenic fungi and DNA barcoding of fungi. G.S. Prasad at the sameinstitute works on the phylogeny and molecular diversity of yeasts. He hasdescribed several new species of yeasts from India.

Shenoy BD, Jeewon R, Wang HK,Amandeep K, Ho WH, Bhat DJ, Crous PW, Hyde KD. 2010. Sequence data revealsphylogenetic affinities of fungal anamorphs Bahusutrabeeja,Diplococcium, Natarajania, Paliphora, Polyschema, Rattania and Spadicoides. Fungal Diversity 44: 161–169.

Daniel HM,Prasad GS. 2010. The role of culture collections asan interface between providers and users: the example of yeasts. Res Microbiol. 161(6):488-96.

Extensiveresearch on endophytic fungi of forest trees, algae and mangroves is beingcarried out by T.S. Suryanarayana and his team at the Vivekananda Institute ofTropical Mycology. He has recently described heat-resistant, ‘agni’ fungi fromthe forests of Western Ghats, whose spores survive exposure to 100-115oC.D.J. Bhat and his students have carried out enormous work on diversity of fungiin various habitats in Goa and have described several new species and reportednew records of fungi from India.

Suryanarayanan TS, Govinda Rajulu MB,Thirumalai E, Reddy MS and Money NP. 2011. Agni’s fungi: heat-resistant sporesfrom the Western Ghats, southern India. FungalBiology Reviews 115: 833-838.

Thirunavukkarasu N, Suryanarayanan TS,Murali TS. Ravishankar JP, Gummadi SN. 2011. L-asparaginase from marine derivedfungal endophytes of seaweeds. Mycosphere2:147–155.

Pratibha J, Bhat DJ andRaghukumar S. 2011. Four anamorphic fungi from forests of Western Ghats, India,with two new species. 117: 269–278.

T. Satyanarayana and his team in Delhi University SouthCampus concentrate on fungal enzymes, especially phytase and its applications.M.S. Reddy at the Thapar Research Institute, Patiala works on moleculardiversity of AM fungi and reclamation of polluted lands using plants inoculatedwith these fungi. Alok Adholeya at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research(TERI) has a large group devoted to research on the application of AM fungi asbiofertilizers, to increase the productivity of crop plants and towardsreclamation of land degraded by several industrial pollutants. He has developeda protocol for mass production of AM fungi and commercialized the technology.

Kaur,P., Singh, B., Böer, E., Straube, N., Piontek, M., Satyanarayana, T. andKunze, G. 2010. Pphy – a cell-bound phytase from the yeast Pichia anomala: molecularcloning of the gene PPHY and characterization of therecombinant enzyme. J. Biotechnol. 149: 8–15.

Singh, B. and Satyanarayana, T. 2011.Microbial phytases in phosphorus aquisition and plant growth promotion. Physiol. Mol.Biol. Plants 17: 93-103.

K.R. Sridhar and his research group at the MangaloreUniversity concentrate on diversity of fresh water and marine fungi and theirecology. J. Muthumary and her team have screened several endophytic fungi forproduction of taxol and anticancer activity. Production of nanoparticles ofvarious metals using metal-tolerant fungi or their enzymes is carried out byseveral research groups. Absar Ahmed at the National Chemical Laboratory, Punehas several publications and patents on production of nanoparticles of gold andsilver by fungi.

Sridhar KR, Karamchand KS and Sumathi P. 2010. Fungal colonization and breakdown of sedge (Cyperus malaccensis Lam.) in a southwest mangrove, India. Botanica Marina 53, 525-533.

Baerlocher F, Charette N, Letourneau A, Nikolcheva LG andSridhar KR. 2010. Sequencing DNA extracted from single conidia of aquatichyphomycetes.Fungal Ecology 3,115-121.

Visalakchi S and MuthumaryJ. 2010. Taxol (Anticancer Drug) producing endophytic fungi: An overview. International Journal of Pharma and BioSciences.(3): 1-9.

Research on fungal technology is done in private firmsalso. Research on dermatophytic and keratinophilic fungi is being carried outby S.K. Deshmukh and his group at the Nicholas Piramal Research Centre, Mumbai.Raghukumar’s MykoTech Pvt Ltd., Goa, specializes on biotechnologicalapplication of fungi, their enzymes and metabolites.

Deshmukh SK and Verekar SA2011.Incidence of keratinophilic fungi from the soils of Vedanthangal water birdsanctuary (India). Mycoses. 54: 487-490.

Deshmukh SK, Verekar SA. 2011. Prevalence of keratinophilic fungi in‘Usar’ soils of Uttar Pradesh, India. Microbiology Research. 3:e15doi:10.4081/mr.2011.e15

Pratibha Jalmi, Pranali Bodke,Solimabi Wahidullah and Seshagiri Raghukumar. 2011. The fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex as a sourceof abundant, extracellular melanin for biotechnological applications. Publishedonline in World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.

Researchon ecology, diversity and phylogeny of deep-sea fungi and fungi fromoxygen-depleted coastal and oceanic zones of the Arabian Sea is being carriedout at the National Institute of Oceanography. Culture-dependent as well asculture-independent approaches were used to describe abundance, distributionand diversity of fungi from these extreme environments. Besides, bioremediationof industrial pollutants by marine fungi is also pursued by this group. Thesestudies have resulted in filing several national and international patents.

Jebraj C, Raghukumar C,Behnke A, Stoeck T. 2010. Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of theArabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined withcultivation. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 71 (3)399-412.

Singh P, Raghukumar C, VermaP, Shouche Y. 2010. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi from the deep-seasediments of the Central Indian Basin and their growth characteristics. Fungal Diversity 40: 89-102.

Verma AK, Raghukumar C, Naik CG.2011. A novel hybrid technology for remediation ofmolasses-based raw effluents. BioresourceTechnology 102: 2411-2418.

Ravindran C  and Naveenan T. 2011. Adaptation of marinederived fungus Chaetomiumglobosum (NIOCC 36) to alkaline stressusing antioxdant properties. Process Biochemistry 46: 847-857

Detailedstudies on genetics of Neurospora crassais being done by Kasbekar and his team of researchers at the Centre forCellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad. Physiology, molecular studies andbiochemistry of yeast is pursued in the department of biochemistry, IndianInstitute of Science, Bangalore.

Keshav Prasad et al. 2010.Comparative proteomic analysis of Candidaalbicans and C.globrata. ClinicalProteomics 6: 167-173.

Kasbekar D. et al. 2011.Carrefour Mme. Gras: A wild-isolated Neurosporacrassa strain that suppresses meiotic silencing by unpaied DNA and uncoversa novel ascospore stability defect. Fungal Genet.Biol. (in press)Doi:10.1016/j.fgb.2011.01.012

Severalbooks either authored or edited by these mycologists are listed below.


Bhat DJ. 2010. Fascinating Microfungi (Hyphomycetes) of Western Ghats, India.Broadway Publishers, Panaji, Goa. 249 pp

MisraJK,Tiwari JP, Deshmukh SK.(Eds) 2011. Systematics and Evolution ofFungi,Science Publishers, Inc Enfield USA.

Sridhar KR. (Ed) 2011. Aquatic Plants and Plant Diseases:Types, Characteristics and Management. Nova Science Publishers Inc., New York,

Patents granted

A process for production of low temperature active alkalineprotease from a deep-sea fungus. Chandralata Raghukumar, Samir Damare, UshaDevi Muraleedharan.
2010. Patent No.4504311  JAPAN.

A process for decolorization of colored effluents uing amarine fungus, its enzymes and extracellular polymeric substance. ChandralataRaghukumar, Donna Trella D’souza Ticlo 2010. Patent No.: GB2434364. UNITEDKINGDOM

Several other groups are engaged inmycological research whose work I could not accommodate here due to spaceconstraint. I will write about it in the next issue of the Asian mycologicalnewsletter.


Samir Damare from the National Institute of Oceanographyreceived CSIR Young

Scientist award in 2010 under the Earth, Atmosphere, Oceanand Planetary Sciences. The award was for his studies on deep-sea fungi whichhe carried out for his PhD degree. The award carries cash prize, a citation andresearch grant for a period of 5 years.


The annual national seminar of the Mycological Society ofIndia was held in Chennai at the Centre for Advanced Study in Botany inFebruary 2011. The seminar was attended by about 150 delegates from all overIndia.

Dr.Chandralata Raghukumar,
313, Vainguinim Valley,
Dona Paula, Goa, 403 004,

Anaselenosporella    indica Pratibha,
Bhat & Raghuk.

Stauriella indica Pratibha, Bhat and Raghuk. Dendryphiopsisgoanensis Praibha, Raghuk. And Bhat Dr. Samir Damare, recipient of the CSIR Young scientist award forhis work on deep-sea fungi.
Prof. D.J. Bhat,displaying his catch during one of his fungal – hunting  trips. He retired from the Goa University onNovember 30, 2011.
Dr. Lata Raghukumar completed her tenure as an emeritus scientist atthe National Institute of Oceanography on July 31, 2011.

Mycology in Iran: Ahistorical review

Djafar Ershad and Rasoul Zare

ResearchInstitute of Plant Protection

Iranian Research Institute of PlantProtection

Study of fungi in Iran was initiated by foreignmycologists. Most of these mycologists have not visited Iran but they receivedfungal material from botanists who came to Iran for plant collections. Thesebotanists also collected fungi separately or their plant material was examinedby mycologists for epiphytic/parasitic fungi. As the result the list of fungiseparately or together with the list of plants was published in Europeanliterature.

In order to summarize the history of mycology in Iranfive periods are described here:

1. First period: until 1860

In this early period of time there is no sign ofIranian fungi in the literature and in case there was anything published, itwas never noticed by later mycologists.

2. Second period: from 1860 to 1941

In fact study on Iranian fungi was started in thisperiod. In this period all publications on Iranian fungi belong to foreignresearchers. These in chronological order are listed here.

1.    The firstpublication on Iranian fungi is published by two European botanists, E.Boissier and F. Buhse, where 33 fungal species, mostly cap fungi, are named.The fungi in this publication (Boissier & Buhse 1860) were collected by F.Buhse.

2.    Rabenhorst(1871) authored the second publication based on fungi collected by C. Haussknechtduring two excursions in Iran.

3.    M.C. Cooke in apublication (Cooke 1880) together with the fungi of other parts of the worldnamed eight Iranian species collected from Kurdistan and Loristan provinces.

4.    Anothercontributor to Iranian mycology was Wettstein (1885) who studied Iranian fungicollected by J.F. Polak and Th. Pitcher.

5.    Masse (1899)published a list of various fungi containing two Iranian species.

6.    Study ofIranian fungi was continued more seriously when J. Bornmüller, famous botanist,started his excursions in Asian countries. This scientist collected fungitogether with plants. The material collected by Bornmüller were given to famousmycologists such as P. Magnus and H. Sydow. Bornmüller himself reported part ofthe fungi he collected together with plants in two publications (Bornmüller1908, 1911). Another part of the fungi were reported by Sydow & Sydow(1908a, 1908b). The rest and the majority of the fungi were identified by P.Magnus and published in six papers (Magnus 1896, 1899, 1899, 1903, 1912).

7.    Worth tomention that Chatin (1897) reported two species of Iranian truffles.

8.    Anothermycologist who published three Iranian fungal species based on materialcollected by O. Paulsen from central Asia and Iran was Rostrup (1908).

9.    R. G. Fragosuis another mycologist who, based on material collected by F.M. de la Escalerafrom Khuzestan and upstream of Karun river, published two papers.

10.  Iran is mentioned in the title of a publication authored by R.Picbauer (1932), but no locality of Iran is mentioned in the paper. Thematerials this scientist studied, were collected by F. Nabelek who traveled toIran and Turkey for plant collection.

11.  One of the greatest foreign mycologists who contributed most toIranian mycology was the famous Austrian mycologist F. Petrak. This mycologistpublished his first paper in 1939. The materials he studied were collected byK.H. Rechinger. F. Petrak started his study on Iranian fungi in this period,however, published his major papers on Iranian fungi in the third period. He evenpublished a paper in the fourth period.

3. Third period: from 1941 to 1963

This period is different from others in that Iranianmycologists started studying fungi of Iran. Researchers who contributed most toIranian mycology are listed here in chronological order.

1.    E. Esfandiariis the first Iranian mycologist who published the result of his studies incollaboration with F. Petrak (Petrak & Esfandiari 1941). Esfandiari had aclose collaboration with Petrak during the course of his studies and evenpublished another paper with Petrak in 1950 in Sydowia. Esfandiari has alsoworked with A. Pilát, Czechoslovakian mycologist, on the identification of capfungi of Iran. Esfandiari has published another 10 papers on fungi or plantpathogenic fungi of Iran.

2.    F. Petrak hascontributed most to the Iranian mycology in this period. He studied on thefungi that were collected by E. Esfandiari and/or G. Scharif and were sent toVienna. Petrak published another 18 papers in this period.

3.    J.A. von Arx ina paper published in 1949 on the genus Mycosphaerella mentions the namesof a few Iranian specimens that were already reported by earlier mycologists.

4.    E. Khabiri isanother Iranian mycologist who published his studies in a French journal in1952, 1956 and 1958. Besides, he published a book on mycology for Iranianstudents.

5.    R.L. Steyaert,Belgian mycologist, was in Iran in 1952 and 1953 who worked on plant diseaseswith Iranian scientists. During his stay in Iran he published a book in Frenchon Diseases of Forest Trees that was translated into Persian by A. Manuchehriand G. Scharif.

6.    D.M. Hendersonin five papers published on Asian rust fungi in 1957, 1959, 1961, 1966 and 1969reported a few rust fungi of Iran too (Henderson 1969).

7.    Another Iranianmycologist who in this period considerably contributed to Iranian mycology wasG. Scharif. He published his first paper on grape anthracnose in 1959. Thetitle of his thesis was: Etude morphologique et biologique de quelqueschampignons folicole de agrumes en Iran. He also published a number of otherpapers mostly on fungal plant diseases in Iran. As mentioned earlier, Scharifhad collected and preliminarily studied the fungi that were later studied andpublished by F. Petrak.

8.    R. Pakravan isanother Iranian mycologist who did his PhD thesis on biology and classificationof fungi attacking rose shrubs in Iran in 1958.

9.    G.Viennot-Bourgin, the French mycologist, was invited by the University of Tehranand some collection on the fungi of Iran that he published in 1958.

10.  I. Jørstad, Norwegian mycologist, in a few papers reported theresult of his study on the fungi of Iran in 1960. The materials were collectedfrom Iran by his compatriot botanist, P. Wendelbo.

11.  R. Heim, French mycologist, travelled to Iran in 1960 andpublished a paper on a mushroom species of Iran (Heim 1960).

12.  Among foreign mycologists we should also name of C. Golato,Italian mycologist, who himself did not work on Iranian fungi but published apaper in 1960 in which he names a few fungal species that were alreadypublished by earlier mycologists.

13.  A. Manuchehri and E. Mohammadi-Doustdar considerably contributedto Iranian mycology mostly in the field of mycology teaching.

4. Fourth period: from 1963 to 2000

This period is distinct from other periods for thefollowing reasons:

i.                Until thisperiod, no artificial media were used in order to grow/identify the fungi. Inthis period after the foundation of the Iranian Research Institute of PlantProtection in Tehran equipments and materials for culture of fungi wereprepared and developed. Therefore, it became possible to work on most fungalspecies. This type of research was initiated in Iranian universities at 1963.

ii.               In this perioddue to the growing number of Iranian mycologists and plant pathologists most ofthe work on Iranian fungi was done by Iranian mycologists.

iii.             In earlierperiods most papers on the identification of fungi of Iran were generallycovering all groups of fungi, but in this period papers on specific fungalgroups in addition to identification monographs on the fungi of Iran werepublished.

Due to therather large number of Iranian mycologists in this period we refrain fromwriting their names. But we feel it is necessary to introduce foreignresearchers who contributed to Iranian mycology in this period.

1.    E. Niemann wasa German plant pathologist who for many years worked for the Iranian ResearchInstitute of Plant Protection as a colleague of Iranian researchers. Hiscontribution to Iranian plant pathology and mycology was considerable enough toname him as one of the main founders of modern fungal plant pathology in Iran.He authored nine papers on plant diseases co-authored by his Iranian colleaguesthat were published in the Iranian journal Applied Entomology and PlantPathology during 1963 to 1967.

2.    In 1963 A.Dubuis & L. Faurel reported eight fungal species in a list of plant speciesthat were collected by R. Pasquier.

3.    In 1964 F.Petrak published another paper and reported two new fungal species from Iran.

4.    D. Boubls &A. Nazemille wrote a paper on grape diseases in Azarbaijan province (west ofIran) in 1966 and reported the fungi they isolated from grape in that region.

5.    W.J. Kaiser,American researcher, worked for many years at the College of Agriculture,Tehran University on disease of pulses and published his first paper in 1967.

6.    G.Viennot-Bourgin travelled to Iran in the same period and authored four papersalone or jointly with Iranian colleagues.

7.    Norwegianmycologist, Eckblad (1970) published his findings on Gasteromycetes ofIran, Afghanistan and Iraq based on material that were collected by P. Wendelbofrom Iran.

8.    W. Gerlach,German mycologist, worked for three months in Iran in 1968 and published threepapers on Iranian Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon species alone orjointly with Iranian colleagues (Gerlach & Ershad 1970).

9.    W. Frey &H.J. Mayeo (1971) listed papers published about plants and fungi of Iran.

10.  R.L. Steyaert was again in Iran in this period, in 1972 publisheda paper on Ganoderma and reported a few Iranian fungi too.

11.  J. Altman, American researcher, who worked in Iran (Power &Water Organization, Dezful, Khuzistan) on plant diseases, published a fewpapers on fungal diseases of plants.

12.  H. Riedl travelled to Iran in spring 1974 in order to collectplants, fungi and lichens of Iran. He jointly published a paper with hisIranian collaborator (Riedl & Ershad 1977).

13.  N. Hallenberg, Swedish mycologist, who worked on wood inhabitingfungi as the subject of his thesis, travelled to the Caspian Sea region in acouple of occasions with his Iranian collaborators and the result of his workedwas published in four papers (Hallenberg 1978).

14.   K. Vánky, smut specialist,travelled to Iran in spring 1990 and with his Iranian collaborator visitedcentral, eastern and northern parts of Iran and published two papers on Iraniansmut fungi (Vánky & Ershad 1993).

15.  H.B. Gjaerum, Norwegian rust specialist, collaborated with Iranianrust specialists and reported Iranian rust fungi in a few papers and alsopublished a joint paper with Iranian mycologists (Ershad et al. 1997).

5. Fifth period: from 2000

This period is distinct from other periods becausemolecular techniques were used in the identification of fungi of Iran. In thisperiod several Iranian mycologists were educated abroad or at Iranianuniversities who used molecular techniques in their works.

A turning point in the history of mycology in Iran isthe foundation of Iranian Mycological Society which took place on 15 September2010 at the Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, where fiveexecutive committee members were elected during the first general meeting of thesociety.

The number of Iranian mycologists was increased andnearly most papers were dedicated to specific groups of fungi. Due to the largenumber of Iranian mycologists in this period we refrain from writing theirnames. It is important here to mention the names of two outstanding mycologistswhose collaboration and support to young Iranian mycologists significantlycontributed to the advancement of mycology in Iran. These great mycologists areW. Gams (Swiss-Austrian mycologists who works in the Netherlands) and U. Braun(German mycologist).

As was mentioned here, in the first paper published onIranian fungi (Biossier & Buhse 1860) 33 species were reported. In thethird edition of the ‘Fungi of Iran’ Ershad (2009) listed 3229 fungalspecies/varieties together with their substrates and localities. Now after 151years of mycological study in Iran the number of fungal species/varieties ofIran reaches some 3300. These taxa belong to 871 genera that are: 20 of Protozoa,15 of Chromista, 261 of Deuteromycota, 225 of Ascomycota,315 of Basidiomycota (including 289 of Agaricomycotina, 21 of Pucciniomycotinaand 15 of Ustilaginomycotina), 4 of Blastocladiomycota, 2 of Chytridiomycota,9 of Glomeromycota and 20 of Zygomycota.

The first general meetingof the Iranian Mycological Society on 15 September 2010


Boissier E., Buhse F. (1860) Aufzählung der auf eineReise durch Transkaukasien und Persien gesammelten Pflanzen Fungi. NouveauxMémoires de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou, Tom 12: 244-246.

Bornmüller J (1908) Beiträge zur Flora derElbusgebirge, Nord-Persiens. Fungi Bull. Herb. Boisser. 2 ser. 8: 917-922.

Bornmüller J (1911) Collectiones Straussianae novae.Weiter Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora West-Persiens, Fungi. Beih. Bot. Centralbl.28: Abt: II. Heft 3: 529-531.

Chatin M (1897) Les terfas (truffles) de Pers. C. r.Séanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 125: 387-388.

Cooke MC (1880) Exotic fungi, Persia. Grevillea 9:13-14.

Eckblad F-E (1970) Gasteromycetes from Iraq. Iran andAfghanestan. Nytt. Mag. Bot. 17: 129-138.

Ershad D, Abbasi M and Gjaerum HB (1997) Report ofseveral rust taxa from Iran. Iran. J. Plant Path. 19: 40-45.

Fragoso RG (1918) Pugillusseundus mycetorum Persiae (Lecti. A Ferd Martinez de la Escalera) Boln R. Soc. Esp. Hist. nat. 18: 78-85.

Hallenberg N (1978) Wood-fungi (Corticiaceae,Coniophoraceae, Lachnocladiaceae, Telephoraceae) in N. Iran. I. Iran. J. PlantPath. 14: 38-87.

Heim R (1960) Le pleurote desombellifères en Iran. Revue Mycol. 25: 242-247.

Henderson DM (1969) Two new puccinias from south westAsia. Notes R. Bot. Gdn Edinb. 29: 389-390.

Jørstad I (1960) Iranian plants collected by PerWendelbo in 1959. II. Uredinales and some other parasitic fungi. Arb. Univ.Bergen. Nat.-Natur. Serie 11: 1-33.

Khabiri E (1952) Contribution á la mycoflore de ľIran. Premiere liste. Revue Mycol. 17: 154-157.

Magnus P (1896) J. Bornmüller. Iter Persico-turcicum1892/93. Fungi Pars I. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pilze des Orients. Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien 46: 426-438.

Magnus P (1899) J. Bornmüller. Iter Persico-turcicum1892/93. Fungi Pars II. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pilze des Orients. Verh.K. K. Zool.-Bot. Gesellsch. Wien 49: 432-449.

Massee GE (1899) Fungi exotici II Persia. Kew Bull.146: 153-154.

Petrak F (1939) Fungi in K.H. Rechinger: Ergebnisseeiner botanichen Reise nach dem Iran, 1937. Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 50: 414-521.

Petrak F und Esfandiari E (1941) Beiträge zur Kenntnisder iranischen Pilzflora. Ann. Mycol. 39: 204-228.

Rabenhorst L. (1871) Übersicht der von Herrn Prof. Dr.Hassknecht im Orient gesammelten Kryptogammen. Hedwigia 10: 17-27.

Riedl H und Ershad D (1977) Mykologishe Ergebnisseeiner Sammelreise in den Iran im Frühgahr 1974. I. Sydowia 29: 155-169.

Rostrup PE (1908) Lieutenant Olufsen’s secondPamir-Expedition. Plant collected in Asia Media and Persia by Ova Paulsen. V.Fungi. Bot. Tidsskr. 28: 215-218.

Sydow H und Sydow P (1908a) Einige neuve von Herrn J.Bornmüller in Persien gesammelte Pilze. Ann. Mycol. 6: 17-18.

Sydow H und Sydow P (1908b) Micromycetes orientalesacl. J. Bornmüller communicati. Ann. Mycol. 6: 526-530.

Vánky K and Ershad D (1993) Smut fungi (Ustilaginales)new to Iran. Iran J. Plant Path. 29: 1-29.

Viennot-Bourgin G (1958) Contribution á laconnaissanse des champignons parasities de ľ Iran. Ann. Epiphyt. N. S. 9:97-210.

Wettstein R (1885) Fungi in O. Stapf: Die botanischenErgebnisse der polakschen Expedition nach Persien im Jahre 1882. Denkschr.Akad. Wiss. Wien 50: 1-4.

Studies of fungal diversity in northern Thailand

Thailandis rich in tropical forests where fungi and fungi-like organisms arehyperdiverse.  Many areas however, remainunexplored, thus, many organisms still await discovery and identification.  The National Science Foundation providedfunds that support a program that provides opportunities to aspiringmycologists to carry out studies on fungi and fungi-like organisms in northernThailand.  Selected undergraduate andgraduate students from the United States and Thailand participated in theworkshop on “Fungal Diversity in Northern Thailand” in June 2011.  The students were able to interact withInternational mycologists from various universities in the United States andThailand who gave them educational experiences related to biodiversity.  Dr. Steve Stephenson, the program coordinatorfrom the University of Arkansas and Dr. Steve Miller, one of the co-directorsfrom the University of Wyoming facilitated the workshop.  They shared their expertise in microfungi andmacrofungi as well as fungi-like organisms such as myxomycetes.  Dr. Kevin D. Hyde of Mae Fah Luang Universityand Dr. Saisamorn Lumyong of Chiang Mai University were also involved in theprogram.

Dr.    Stephenson, explaining to the students the does and don’t’s in collecting fungal    specimens.
Dr.    Miller, showing the students Lactarius sp. and Rhizophogun (truffles) collected from Doi Inthanon.

Variousstudy sites in northern Thailand were chosen based on the accessibility anddiversity of the area.  These include,Doi Inthanon, Doi Suthep, Mae Sae, Mushroom Research Center and Pamathikaramtemple.  The laboratory activities,lectures, processing of samples and analyzing of data were all conducted at theMushroom Research Centre.  The studentsfrom different countries (America, China, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lankaand Thailand) worked together in processing of samples and analyzing data thathelped them develop camaraderie and understand the value of team work.

The Mushroom Research    Centre.  A bliss.  An ideal place to learn Mycology.

Personally,the fungal diversity workshop has helped me a lot to widen my knowledge inMycology.  I am very fortunate to bechosen as one of the participants of this workshop because I was able to workwith international mycologists.  I willnever forget all the knowledge and skills they have shared us during classroomdiscussions, laboratory activities and field work.  They provided us with a deeper understandingabout biodiversity and made us realize that as aspiring mycologists we shouldknow our responsibilities.

Also,It was a great opportunity to work with foreign students from America, SriLanka, China, Myanmar,  Laos andThailand.  I learned a lot fromthem.  I hope one day, we can come upwith a big project that will contribute to fungal diversity.  More brains, more ideas.  The interaction with them, joint activitiesand field work made me realized that there is so much research to be carriedout.  Each country needs to establishinformation based on their biodiversity and make national collections oforganisms found in these areas. Our journey does not stop here.  There is a long way to go, thus, the searchfor the missing fungi continues.

Dr. Miller, showing to the students the  Lactarius sp. collected from Doi Inthanon, Overal,the workshop was a great success!  I wentback to my country carrying a  collectionbasket not full of mushrooms but filled with knowledge about mycology. It has been my dream for the Philippines to follow the path of carrying out the field of research of mycology. Kudos to the organizers of the MRC WORKSHOP 2011.PAMELA P. ALVA (Pam) Philippines Ph.D. Student, Mae Fah Luang University Chiang Rai Thailand.

Mycology in Laos
PhengsinthamP1,2,E. Chukeatirote E 1, Hyde KD1and Braun U31Schoolof Science, Mae Fah Luang University,ChiangRai 57100. Thailand2BiologyDepartment, Faculty of Sciences, National University of Laos3Martin-Luther-Universität,Institut für Biologie, Bereich Geobotanik und Botanischer Garten, Herbarium,Neuwerk 21 D-06099 Halle/S. GermanyAbstract:Lao PDRis considered to be globally important for biodiversity conservation due to itsrelatively high forest cover and high diversity of flora and fauna. A total of12,116 species: 8,000-11,000 species of flowering plants, fauna includes 166species of reptiles and amphibians, at least 700 bird species, 90 known speciesof bats and at least 100 species of large mammals, and fungi 60 species.Therehave very few studies on Lao fungi. 1959-1974 was the war condition period and almost temporary stop studyin Mycology, and for each institute the teaching curriculum only mentionedabout the general mycology and focused on macrofungi such as edible andpoisonous mushroom. From 1975 up to now the teaching curriculum has been developed and started studying specific subjects on fungi. A total of 201 fungi species have recorded from Laos:Ascomycota 24 species, Basidiomycota 44 species, Deuteromycota 133 species. By integrating themorphological and molecular characters, nine new taxa were established, namely Passalora dipterocarpi, P. helicteris-viscidae, Pseudocercospora mannanorensis Bagyan., U. Braun & Jagad.var. paucifasciculata,Zasmidiumaporosae,Z.jasminicola, Z. meynae-laxiflorae, Z. micromeli,Z.suregadaeZ. pavettae, while other cercosporoids speciesrepresent new record for Laos.These data are expected to shed light on the diversity of the fungal group in this region.Keywords: Mycology /Biodiversity / Curriculum / South East Asia.
Introduction Overview ofBiodiversity in Laos
Lao PDR is considered to be globallyimportant for biodiversity conservation due to its relatively high forest coverand high diversity of flora and fauna. Approximately 41% of Lao PDR is coveredwith forest which contains an estimated 8,000-11,000 species of floweringplants. The country’s fauna includes 166 reported species of reptiles andamphibians, at least 700 bird species, 90 known species of bats and at least100 species of large mammals(STEA, 2003), and fungi 60species (Phengsintham & Hyde, 2003a).Mycological studiesfrom 1959 to 19741959-1974it was the war condition period and temporary stop studying in Mycology, andfor teaching curriculum only mentioned about general information about fungi.Thefungi of Laos were little studied. Vidal (1959), a French botanist, published achecklist of plant species of Laos which included 33 species of Lao fungi.Almost all names of fungi are local names, but include some scientific names.Mycological studiesfrom 1975 to 2011Forthis period can be divided into two phases:(1)In 1975, combined two institutes such as Viengxay Pedagogical Institute, in HuaPhanh province and Dongdok Pedagogical Institute into one institute called“Dongdok Pedagogical Institute of Vientiane, Lao PDR”. The study in Mycology is focused on general information about fungi. In that time, the Kingdom fungi still belong to plant.(2)In 1996, the National University of Laos was established on the Prime Minister’s Decree No. 50/PM, dated 09/06/1995 and began first academic year on5 November 1996, by merging 10 higher learning institution previously operatedunder different governmental department and ministries to form a full-fledgeduniversity called “National University of Laos (NUOL)”. The one of the mainobjectives is to educate Lao students to become qualified economic staff with good behaviour, generosity, and the advanced capability leading regional and international standards. So far, the National University has offered thefollowing academic programs of 96 bachelor degree programs, 33 continuingbachelor programs, 37 master’s degree programs, and 3 doctoral degree programs(Saignaleut, 2011).Morenew buildings were constructed; one of those is laboratory of BiologyDepartment, Faculty of Sciences, NUOL (Fig. 1). National University of Laos hastaken the measures in providing students with more opportunity to gain accessto university in the equitable manner through the annual entrance examinationand quota system called a quota and non-quota programs. The number of studentsgraduating from NUOL has been increasing every year as shown in the following Table 1.Table1: Number of student summary Source:Reports on the activities of NUOL within 15 years (1996-2011).The fungi study was started by updating teachingcurriculum and focused study on macrofungi such as edible and poisonousmushroom, but almost data only in reports, no publications.Our overseas collaboration was carried with the “Mushroom Research Centre, Chiang Mai, Thailand”, School of Science,Mae Fah Luang University (MFU), Chiang Rai, Thailand and other institutions,and attempted to document macro- and microfungi respectively:  Phengsintham & Hyde (2003a) updated listof fungi from Laos, including 60 fungi species, and published “Twenty ascomycetes on palms from Laos” (Phengsintham & Hyde, 2003b). seven (7)genera (Alternaria, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Chlamydomyces, Curvularia, Passalora, Pseudocercospora) of dematiaceous hyphomycetes were recorded inthe B.Sc. report of Vongphachanh et al. (2007), and ten (10) genera (Alternaria,ArthriniumCephalerosCladosporiumDictyoerthirinium,MeliolaScolecostigminaSpiropsPseudocercosporaand Tripospermum) of Hyphomycetes and 2 genera (Pestalopsis &Collectotrichum) of Coelomycetes on leaf and fruit of Mango (Mangiferaindica) were recorded in BSc thesis (Vanavong & Khamphonvixay, 2009).Phengsintham et al. (2009) published paper “Cercospora and allied generafrom Laos 1: notes on five new species of ZasmidiumBesidethat, Phengsintham et al. (2010a, 2010b) also published papers “Cercosporaand allied genera from Lao 2&3”. A total of 201 fungi species have recordedfrom Laos: Ascomycota 24 species, Basidiomycota 44 species, Deuteromycota about133 species (Table 2).By integrating the morphological and molecularcharacters, nie new taxa were established, namely Passalora dipterocarpi, P. helicteris viscidae,  Pseudocercospora  mannanorensis  Bagyan., U. Braun & Jagad.var. paucifasciculata, Zasmidiumaporosae, Z.jasminicola, Z. meynae-laxiflorae, Z. micromeli,Z.suregadaeZ. pavettae, while other cercosporoids speciesrepresent new record for Laos.Table2. Fungi species described from LaosNote: C = Calamus,H = habitat, LM = life modes, S = saprobic. T= terrestrial. P = parasiticDiscussionsand Conclusions(1)   Lao PDR is considered to beglobally important for biodiversity conservation due to its relatively highforest cover and high diversity of flora and fauna.(2)   A total of 12,116 species:8,000-11,000 species of flowering plants, fauna includes 166 reported speciesof reptiles and amphibians, at least 700 bird species, 90 known species of batsand at least 100 species of large mammals, and fungi 60 species.(3)   Therehave very few studies on Lao fungi. 1959-1974, it was the war condition period and almost temporary stopstudy in Mycology, and for each institute teaching curriculum only mentionedabout the general information of fungi, especially focused on marofungi. Atotal of 33 fungi species had recorded, and almost those fungi are belong toBasidiomycota.(4)   From 1975 up to now the teaching curriculum has beendeveloped and started study on fungi by cooperation with internationalorganizations. A total of 168 fungi species have recorded from Laos: Ascomycota24 species, Basidiomycota 11 species, Deuteromycota about 133 species. By integrating themorphological and molecular characters, nine new taxa were established, namely Passalora dipterocarpi, P. helicteris-viscidae, Pseudocercospora mannanorensis Bagyan., U. Braun & Jagad.var. paucifasciculata,Zasmidiumaporosae,Z.jasminicola, Z. meynae-laxiflorae, Z. micromeli,Z.suregadaeZ. pavettae, while other cercosporoids speciesrepresent new record for Laos.These data areexpected to shed light on the diversity of the fungal group in this region.(5)   Aswe known the forest cover in Laos about 41 % of a total country, and therestill have primary forest and limestone areas, so that unexpoitation forests,may be have more fungal diversity.
Based on the strategic plan for the development of NUOL, and to achieve the goals,vision and functions of NUOL for the educational quality development, sixdevelopment strategic plans have been determined as follows:(1)   Improveteachers, staff, and students.(2)   Improve administration and management systems.(3)   Improvethe quality of teaching and learning.(4)   Improvethe quality of research and academic services.(5)   Improve the infrastructure and facilities.(6)   Improve the national and international collaborations.Basedon the strategic plan above, the fungi research activities are need to improvein teaching curriculum and research on fungi.AcknowledgementsTheauthors would like to thank the Mushroom Research Foundation (MRF) forfinancial support. Special thanks also go to the MRF organizers and members ofProf. K.D. Hyde’s laboratory, Mae Fah Luang University, and members of Biologydepartment, Faculty of sciences, National University of Laos for theirassistance.ReferencesCousPW and Braun U 2003 – Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 1. Names published in Cercospora and Passalora. CBS Biodiversity Series 1: 1–569.FrankJ, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Oertel B, Hyde KD, Phengsintham P and Schroers HJ2010 –Microcyclosporaand Microcyclosporella:novel genera accommodating epiphytic fungi causing sooty blotch on apple.Persoonia 24, 2010: 93–105.KhamtaD, Payaming B, Pravongviengkham S and Phengsintham P 2003 – Studies on Wild ediblemushroom in Xaythani District, Vientiane Municipality, BSc report. National Universityof Laos.NUOL2011 – Strategic plan National University of Laos, Vientiane, Lao PDR.Phengsintham P and Hyde KD 2003a –Check list of Lao fungi. Building Capacity inBiodiversity Information Sharing 2003. Ksukuba Japan, 184–190.Phengsintham P and Hyde KD 2003b – Fungi ofLaos I: Ascomycetes from Palms. Building Capacity in Biodiversity InformationSharing 2003. Ksukuba Japan, 174–183.Phengsintham P, Hyde KD and Braun U 2009 –Cercospora and allied genera from Laos 1. Notes on Zasmidium ( Cryptologie, Mycologie, 30(2): 1–20.Phengsintham P, Chukeatirote E, Abdelsalam KA, Hyde KD &Braun U 2010 –Cercospora andallied genera from Laos 2. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 31(1):1–21.PhengsinthamP, Chukeatirote E, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD, Braun U 2011 – Tropicalphythopathogens 1: Pseudocercosporapunicae. Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(1), 1–6.Saignaleut S 2011 – Report on the National University ofLaos’ 15 years of Foundation (1996-2011). Vientiane Lao PDR.STEA2003 – BiodiversityCountry Report. Lao PDR.ThavatdyT, Sykham B and Saliyavong V 2008 – Reporton Diversity of Mushrooms in Dongmakkhai Village,Xaythany District, Vientiane Municipality, and Mai village, Xay District,Oudomxay Province. BSc. Report, Faculty of Science, National University ofLaos.Vidal J 1959 – Noms vernacularis de Plantes en usage au Laos. Ecole Francaise D’Extreme-Orient. Paris.Vongphachanh P, Wolabout M, Phaviste M, Phengsintham P & Khounsouvanh F 2007 – Taxonomic Study on Family Demataceae in Xaithany District. BSc. Report, National University of Laos.Studies of Fungal Biodiversity inNorthern ThailandIn2009, the University of Arkansas in the United States was awarded a grant fromthe National Science Foundation (NSF) for a project entitled “Studies of FungalBiodiversity in Northern Thailand.” The funding provided by NSF supports aninternational education program that provides the opportunity, during each ofthree summers, for four undergraduate and/or graduate students from the UnitesStates to spend a month carrying out biodiversity studies of fungi andfungus-like organisms associated with tropical forests in northern Thailand.Tropical forests are thought to be the terrestrial ecosystems characterized bythe highest fungal biodiversity, but a major portion of this biodiversity has yet to be documented. While in Thailand, the four student participants from theUnited States interact with students from SE Asia who are enrolled at either Mae Fah Luang University or Chiang Mai University. The majority of the studentsare from Thailand, but participants also have included individuals from China,Laos, Sri Lanka and the Philippines.Dr. SteveStephenson of the Department of Biological Sciences at the University ofArkansas is the program coordinator, with Dr. Dennis Desjardin of San FranciscoState University and Dr. Steve Miller of the University of Wyoming serving asco-directors. Mycologists in Thailand involved in the program are Dr. KevinHyde at Mae Fah Luang University and Dr. Saisamorn Lumyong at Chiang MaiUniversity. Other individuals who have been involved in the program are Dr.Adam Rollins of Lincoln Memorial University (United States), Dr. Carlos Rojasof the University of Costa Rica, and Dr. Thida Win Ko Ko of Mae Fah University.The first of the threesummer programs was carried out during the period of mid-June to mid-July of2010, with the second summer program taking place during the period of mid-Juneof 2011. The third summer program is scheduled for a comparable period of timein 2012. Participants from the United Statesflew to Bangkok and then on to Chiang Mai, finally arriving at the Mushroom Research Centre (Fig. 1),which is serving as the base of operations for the summer programs.  The Mushroom Research Centre, located 64 kmnorth of Chiang Mai, is situated on in a forested area that offers excellentopportunities for collecting fungi. The Centre itself consists of a number ofchalets (which provide “homes” for all participants in the month-long summer program), a kitchen and meeting area and laboratory facilities. Meals(traditional Thai food) are prepared on site. Each summer program consists of an introductory session on fungi, workshops on particular groups of fungi and fungus-like organisms and trips to collecting sites in the Chiang Mai region of northern India. Workshops held as part of the 2011 summer program considered the family Russulaceae, pyrenomycetous fungi andmyxomycetes. Collecting has been carried out in a variety of different forest types, including pine-dominated forests, dipterocarp forests and mixed forests(Fig. 2). Specimens collected in the field are brought back to the laboratoryfor detailed study. After they have been photographed, described and worked up,specimens are deposited in the herbarium of Mae Fah Luang University.In addition tospending time together on collecting trips and working in the laboratory,student participants share research interests and generally get to know oneanother. Participants form the United States get to know Thai culture inaddition to learning about the customs and way of life in the other countries(e.g., China and Laos) represented by participants from SE Asia. This aspect ofthe program has been an extraordinary experience for all of the studentsinvolved and undoubtedly will lead to future research collaborations as thesestudents embark upon their careers in mycology.Each of the two summer programs completed thus farhas yielded several hundred collections of fungi (including slime molds). In2011, some emphasis was on the “little fungi” (mostly ascomycetes) that areoften overlooked by mycologists whose interests are directed towards macrofungi. Although most of the specimens have yet to be identified, Dr.Larissa Vasilyeva (Vladivostok, Russia), who spent about 10 days at theMushroom Research Centre during the latter portion of June, discovered at least15 species of pyrenomycetes that are new to science. It seems almost certainthat additional new species in a number of groups of fungi are forthcoming.Images of the Mushroom Research Centre, studentparticipants, fungi and northern Thailand in general are available on <>.
Mycology in Israel
Mycology in Israel encompasses all aspects ofinterests in the fungal kingdom. This includes research, cultivation, thebiotechnological industry and clinical mycology. A growing number of Israelisare also interested in fungal forays and the culinary delights of fungi.The fungal research community of about 120 activemembers has representatives in all 7 Israeli universities as well as inadditional institutes. Though  not verylarge (given the size of the country, with a population of about 7 million), itis an active research community and prides itself with high quality researchoutput, mainly in fungal cell biology, genetics, fungal host interactions(human, animal and plant), biological control, fungal ecology (terrestrial andmarine) and systematics.  Some of themain fungal genera studied in Israel include CochliobolusColletotrichum,BotrytisFusariumAspergillusCandidaPleurotus,Trichoderma and Neurospora.Most fungal researchers are associated with one orboth of two major societies in Israel – the Israeli Phytopathological Societyand the Israel Society for Microbiology. Both of these active societies holdannual general meetings and workshops as well as field trips and specialinterest group meetings. In addition, non-formal meetings of a “molecularmycology club” convene twice yearly (each time hosted by a different universitycampus), where students present their progress in an “expanded group meeting” format.Fungal biology is also studied and applied inindustry, ranging from production of biocontrol agents (e.g., Trichoderma,Ampelomyces) to the use of fungi for production of metabolites of interest.Services for diagnosis are present in the major hospitals, the ministry ofagriculture as well as by some private companies. In addition, there is aconstant expansion of the edible mushroom industry (mainly Agaricus and Pleurotusbut efforts are invested in the expansion of the range of species grown).It is currently the beginning of the foray season inIsrael (which can last as long as until April), in which mushrooms such as Agaricus,PleurotusBoletusLepiotaTricholoma, and Volvarillacan be found. In addition, one of the unique edible mushrooms collected duringthe spring time, mainly in dessert areas of the country, is thedesert “false Truffles” Terfezia and Tirmania.Which has more diverse assemblagesof myxomycetes: tropical forests or temperate forests?Particular groups of plants andanimals become increasingly more diverse as one nears the equator. Is thispattern also true for slime molds (or myxomycetes)? This is what Dr. ThomasEdison dela Cruz would like to answer. Dr dela Cruz, the Philippinerepresentative to the Asia Mycology Committee and a faculty member in theDepartment of Biological Sciences, University of Santo Tomas in Manila,Philippines, is currently working on a project with Dr. Steve Stephenson at theUniversity of Arkansas in the United States. Dr. dela Cruz was awarded apost-doctoral fellowship by the prestigious Fulbright Commission. He andStephenson, who is a former Fulbright scholar (at Himachal Pradesh Universityin India) himself, are comparing the myxomycete assemblages associated withthree well-defined microhabitats in forests of the tropics and temperate zones.Samples of aerial litter, ground litter and dead twigs were collected fromthree lowland dipterocarp forests in the Philippines. These were Mt.Palay-Palay National Park in Ternate, Cavite; the Subic Forest Reserve inSubic, Zambales; and Bataan National Park in Morong, Bataan. Comparable samplesalso were collected from three types of temperate forests in Arkansas. Theforests sampled were an oak-hickory forest in Devil’s Den State Park, a mixedoak forest in Pea Ridge National Historical Park, and a beech-dominated forestin the Lost Valley area of the Buffalo National River. With the assistance ofDr. Hanh Tran, a faculty member at Ho Chi Minh International University inVietnam and also a Fulbright scholar at the University of Arkansas, sets ofmoist chamber cultures were prepared from the samples and are being monitoredto assess myxomycete species diversity. Preliminary data appear to show higherdiversity for tropical forests than temperate forests. At least 43 species ofmyxomycetes belonging to 17 genera have been recorded thus far for substratescollected in the Philippines, whereas only 29 species representing 18 generahave appeared in moist chamber cultures prepared from substrates collected inArkansas. Several of the species from the Philippines are new records for thecountry. Twigs clearly have been the most productive substrate, regardless ofwhere they were collected. However, as the project continues, it remains to beseen whether the patterns noted thus far will continue to hold true. Thisproject is the largest study yet carried out to compare the assemblages of myxomycetes associated with the same types of substrates in tropical andtemperate forests.

The Fungal Diversity    Research Group 2011.
Academic year Number of registered students Number of graduating students
Total Female Total Female
1996-1997 8,137 2,270 687 237
1997-1998 9,890 2,976 1,521 384
1998-1999 11,168 3,663 1,400 381
1999-2000 11,746 4,345 1,655 428
2000-2001 13,079 5,426 2,157 579
2001-2002 16,613 5,982 2,959 882
2002-2003 18,366 6,215 2,734 651
2003-2004 20,550 7,457 3,090 905
2004-2005 22,624 8,263 3,742 1,036
2005-2006 26,673 9,415 3,981 1,299
2006-2007 28,366 10,215 4,925 1,608
2007-2008 32,332 11,069 5,595 1,813
2008-2009 36,706 12,963 5,849 2,016
2009-2010 40,731 14,537 6,639 2,492
2010-2011 37,504 16,729 6,611 2,404
Total 323,915 121,525 53,545 17,115
Taxa Local   name Family Host H LM Ref.
Appendicospora hongkongensis Yanna, K.D. Hyde & Frohl. Apiospora-ceae Decaying on petiole of Livistona chinensis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Arecophila motobilis K.D. Hyde Cainiaceae Decaying on stem of Calamus viminalis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Astrocystis sp. Xylariaceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Astrosphaeriella fisurostroma J. Frohl. & K.D.Hyde Melanommataceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Astrosphaeriella malayensis K.D. Hyde &J. Frohl. Melanom-mataceae Decaying on stem of Calamus viminalis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Diaporthe palmarum J.E. Taylor, K.K.Hyde & E,B,G. Jones Valsaceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Fasciatispora petrakii (Mhaskar & V.G. Rao) K.D. Hyde Xylariaceae Decaying on leaf of Borassus flabellifer T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Guignardia calami (Syd. P. Syde) Arx & E. Moll. Mycosphae-rellaceae Decaying on leaf of Cocos nucifera T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Hirsutella citriformis Speare Baculoviri-dae On Ant T P Keokene (NOUL  022)
Lophiostoma graciale (Fuckel) Holm Lophiosto-mataceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b
Massarina corticola (Fuckel) Holm Lophiosto-


Decaying on petiole of Licuala grandis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Massarina palmicola K.D.Hyde & Aptroot Lophiosto-mataceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Myelosperma tumidum Syd. & P. Syd. Myelosper-maceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b
Mytilidion cf. acicola Winter. Mytilidaceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b
Ophiocordycep s shecocephala (Klotzsch)G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones  & Spatafora Ophiocordy-cipitaceae On Wasp T P Keokene (NOUL  005)
Ophiocordyceps myrmecophila (Cesati) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones &  Spatafora Ophiocordy-cipitaceae On Wasp T P Keokene (NOUL  023)
Oxydothis bruneiensis J. Frohl. & K.D. Hyde Hyponectri-aceae Decaying on stem of Cocos nucifera T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Oxydothis elaeicola Petr. Apud Petrak & deighton Hyponectri-aceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Oxydothis rattanica J. Frohl. & K.D. Hyde Hyponectri-aceae Decaying on stem of C. flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003a&b
Pestalosphaeria elaeidis (Booth & Robertson) Ao Amphisphae-riaceae Decaying on leaf of Cocos nucifera T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b
Phaeodothis sp. Phaeosphae-riaceae Decaying on leaf of Caryota mitis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b
Phomatospora sp. Xylidaceae Decaying on leaf of Caryota mitis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b
Torrubiella iriomoteana Kobayasi & Shimizu Cordycipita-ceae Insect (Hemiptera) T P Keokene  (MUO00001.1)
Valsa chlorine Pat. Valsaceae Decaying on stem of Cocos nucifera T S Phengsintham  & Hyde. 2003b
Agaricus cinereus Schaeff. Het Khi Khouay Agaricaceae On soil under grass T S Vidal, 1959
Agaricus equestris Lour. Het Khi Mah Agaricaceae On host dug T S Vidal, 1959
Agaricus sp. Het Pouak Agaricaceae On soil T S Vidal,1959
Astraeus hygrometricus (Pers) Morg. Het Phoh Astreaceae On soil in dry dipterocarp forest T S Vidal,1959
Amanita vaginata Fr. var. alba (Fr.) Gill. Het La Ngok Khao Amanitaceae On soil T S Thavatdy et al.,  2008
Amanita vaginata (Fr.) Quel. Var. fulva Het La Ngok Luang Amanitaceae On soil T S Thavatdy et al.,  2008
Auricularis auricular (Hook F.) Underw. Het Hou Nou Auricula-ceae Decaying wood in forest T S Vidal, 1959,  Khamta et al, 2003
Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. Het Hou Nou, Het Sa Noun, Het sa Tao Auricula-ceae Decaying wood in forest T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Auricularia ternus (Lev.) farlow Het Hou Nou Auricula-ceae Decaying wood in forest T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Boletus sp. (1) Het Tup Tau Dam Boletaceae On soil T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Boletus sp. (2) Het Tup Tau Dam Boletaceae On soil T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Calvatia craniformis Coker et Couch Het Chao Mark Lycoperda-ceae On soil T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Cantharella minor Pek Het Khi Minnoy Canthrarel-laceae On soil T S Phengsintham and  Hyde, 2003a
Cantharella subbrubarius Pek Het Mun Pau Canthrarel-laceae On soil T S Phengsintham and  Hyde, 2003a
Clavaria sp. Clavaria-ceae On soil T S Vidal, 1959
Coprinus disseminates (Schaeff. Ex Fr.) S.F. Gray Coprina-ceae Decaying wood T S Phengsintham and  Hyde, 2003a
Coprinus cinereus (Schaeff. Ex Fr.) S.F. Gray Coprina-ceae Decaying wood T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Coriolus caperatus Berk. Het hou Sua Polypora-ceae Decaying wood T S Vidal, 1959
Coriolus biformis KI. Het Bok Polypora-ceae Decaying wood T S Vidal, 1959
Dictyophora indusiata (vent.) Fisch. Het dang Hae Phallaceae On soil T S Vidal, 1959
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst Het Lin Chu Polypora-ceae On soil T S Vidal, 1959
Lactarius flavidulus Imai Het Khah Russuala-ceae On soil T S Khamta et al,  2003
Lactarius sp. (1) Het Khah Russuala-ceae On soil T S Khamta et al,  2003
Lactarius sp. (2) Het Khah Russuala-ceae On soil T S Khamta et al,  2003
Lepiota sp. Het Khon Kong Agarica-ceae On soil T S Vidal, 1959
Lentinus flavidulus Imai. Het Kha Polypodia-ceae Decaying wood T S Thavatdy et al,  2008
Lentinus sajar-caju (Fr.) Fr. Het Pok Polypodia-ceae Decaying wood of TerminaliaCratoxylon sp.,  etc T S Khamta et al,  2003
Lentinus polychrous Lev. Het Khon, Het Both Polypodia-ceae Decaying wood T S Khamta et al,  2003
Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. Het Khon Khao Polypodia-ceae Decaying wood T S Khamta et al,  2003
Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer. Het Hom Polypodia-ceae Decaying wood T S Khamta et al,  2003
Microporus xanthopus (fr.) Pat. Het Seng Polypodia-ceae Decaying wood T S Vidal, 1959
Mycena sp. Het Khau Tok, Het Kai Noy Agarica-ceae On soil T S Khamta et al,  2003
Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Guil. Het Nang Lom Pleurota-ceae Decaying wood T S Thavatdy et al,  2008
Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff. Ex fr. Het Naa Muang Russulaceae On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests T S Phengsintham et  al., 1996; Khamta et al., 2003
Russula nigricans Fr. Het Thain Ngai Russula-ceae On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests T S Phengsintham et  al., 1996; Khamta et al., 2003
Russula sanguine Fr. Het Nam mak Russula-ceae On soil in forest T S Thavady et al.,  2008
Rusulla sp. (1) Het Than Noi Russula-ceae On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Rusulla sp. (2) Het Than Noi Russula-ceae On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Rusulla sp. (3) Het Than Noi Russula-ceae On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Russula violeipis Quel. Het Naa Muang Russula-ceae On soil in dry dipterocarp and oak forests T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Schizophyllum commune Fr. Het Bee, het Tupkae Schizophyl-laceae Decaying wood T S Khamta et al.,  2003
Termitomyces sp. Het Puak Agarica-ceae On soil T S Vidal, 1959;  Phengsintham et al, 2003
Termitomyces microcarpus (Berk & Br.) Heim Het tupkai


Agaricaceae On soil T S Vidal, 1959;  Phengsintham et al, 2003
Volvariella volvacea (Bull. & fr.) Het Fuang Pluteaceae On grasses T S Vidal, 1959;  Thavady et al., 2008
Acremonium sp. Dematiaceae Decaying on petiole of Borasus flabellifer T S Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a
Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. Dematiaceae Parasitic on living leaf on Brassica integrifolia T P Vongphachanh et  al. 2007
Alternaria cucurbitae Letendre & Braun. Dematiaceae Parasitic on living leaf on Cucurbita hispida T P Vongphachanh et  al. 2007
Alternaria solani (Ellis & G. martin) L.R. Jones & Grauz. Dematiacea Parasitic on living leaf on Lycopersicon esculentum T P Vongphachanh et  al. 2007
Cercospora achyranthisSyd. & P.  Sydow. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Achyranthes aspera T P Phengsintham  (P43)
Cercospora alocasiae Goh & W.H. Hsieh Dematiaceae On living leaf of Alocasiamacrorrhiza T P Phengsintham  (P464)
Cercospora apii Fresen. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Byttneria andamanensis T P Phengsintham et al.,  2010a
Cercospora artemisiae Y. L. Guo & Y.  Jiang Dematiaceae On living leaf of Artemisia caudata T P Phengsintham  (P597)
Cercospora asparangi Sacc. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Asparagus  officinalis T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Cercospora  begoniae Nori Dematiaceae On living leaf of Begonia inflate T P Phengsintham  (P517)
Cercospora bidentis Tharp. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Bidens  pilosa T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Cercospora brassicicola P. Hennings Dematiaceae On living leaf of Brassica  integrifolia T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Cercospora canescens Ellis & G. Martin Dematiaceae On living leaf of Lablab purpureus subsp.  Bengalensis T P Phengsintham  (P172)
Cercospora cannabis Hara & Fukui Dematiaceae On living leaf of Cannabis sativa T P Phengsintham  (P646)
Cercospora coffeicola Berk. & Cooke Dematiaceae On living leaf of Coffea Arabica T P Phengsintham  (P301)
Cercospora citrulina Cooke Dematiaceae On living leaf of Luffa cylindrical T P Phengsintham  (P199)
Cercospora cocciniae Munjal, Hall & Chona Dematiaceae On living leaf of Coccinia  indica T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Cercospora copsigena Bhartiya, R, Dubey & S.K. Singh Dematiaceae On living leaf of Capsicum annuum T P Phengsintham  (P380)
Cercospora crophulariae (Moesz) Chupp Dematiaceae On living leaf of Scrophilaria  sp T P Phengsintham  (P570)
Cercospora crotalaria Sacc. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Crotalaria uncinella Lamk.   Subsp. elliptica T P Phengsintham (P574)
Cercospora diplaziicola A.K. Das Dematiaceae On living leaf of Diplazium  esculentum T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Cercospora durantae Chupp. & Muller Dematiaceae On living leaf of Duranta  repens T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Cercospora erechtitis Atkison Dematiaceae On living leaf of Erechtites  valerianifolius T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Cercospora erythrinicola Tharrp Dematiaceae On living leaf of Erythrina stricta T P Phengsintham  (P333)
Cercospora gossypinaCooke. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Gossypium  herbaceum T P Crous &  Braun, 2003
Cercospora hyptidicola R.K.Srivast., N. Srivast. & A.K.Srivast. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Hyptis  suaveolens T P Phengsintham  (P22)
Cercospora ipomoeae G. Winter Dematiaceae On living leaf of Ipomoea  involucrata T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Cercospora meliicola Speg. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Chukrasia tabularis T P Phengsintham  (P581)
Cercospora nasturtii Passerini. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Nasturtium officinale T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Cercospora nicotianicola J. M. Yen Dematiaceae On living leaf of Nicotiana tabacum T P Phengsintham  (P583)
Cercospora nilhirensis Govinda & Thirun Dematiaceae On living leaf of Conyza  banariensis T P Phengsintham  (P240)
Cercospora oroxyli Fresen. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Oroxylum  indicum T P Phengsintham  (P23)
Cercospora paederiicola Y.L. Guo Dematiaceae On living leaf of Paederia  scandens T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Cercospora papayae Hansf. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Carica  papaya T P Phengsintham  (P122)
Cercospora petersii (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) G.F. Atk. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Smilax  chinensis T P Phengsintham  (P460)
Cercospora physalidis Ellis Dematiaceae On living leaf of Physalis  angulata T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Cercospra ricinella Sacc. & Berl. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Ricinus communis T P Phengsintham  (P594)
Cercospora sambuci Y.L. Guo & Jiang Dematiaceae On living leaf of Sambucus T P Phengsintham  (P233)
Cercospora senecionicolaJ.J. Davis Dematiaceae On living leaf of Senecio walkeri T P Phengsintham  (P567)
Cercospora somchi Chupp. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Taraxacum officinale T P Phengsintham  (P600)
Cercospora stahlianthi Z.D. Jiang & P.K. Chi Dematiaceae On living leaf of Stahlianthus thorelii T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Cercospora taccae (Syd. & P. Syd.) Chupp. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Tacca intergrifoia T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Cercospora trewiae A.K. Kar & M. Madal Dematiaceae On living leaf of Trewia nudiflora T P Phengsintham  (P580)
Cercospora tridacis-procumbens Govindu & Thirum. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Tridax  procumbens T P Phengsintham  (P282)
Cercospora   volkameriae Speg. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Clerodendron  schmidtii T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Cercospora zinniae A. Pande Dematiaceae On living leaf of Zinnia elegans T P Phengsintham  (P82)
Cladoporium maculans Schwein. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Jasmiumundulatum T P Phengsintham  (P39)
Cladosporium alternioloratum R.F. Castañeda & W.B. Kendr. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Cyperus alternifolius T P Phengsintham  (P413)
Cladosporium citri G. Briosi, & R. Farneti Dematiaceae On living leaf of Citrus  grandis T P Phengsintham  (P12)
Cladosporium colocasiae Sawada Dematiaceae On living leaf of Colocasia  antiquorum T P Phengsintham  (P185)
Cladosporium fulvum Cooke Dematiaceae On living leaf of Lycopersicon  esculentum T P Phengsintham  (P224)
Cladosporium musae Mason. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Musa  sapientum T P Phengsintham  (P150)
Cladosporium oxycarpum Berk. & Curt. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Anadendrum  latifolium T P Phengsintham  (P04)
Cladosporium zeae Peck Dematiaceae On living leaf of Zea mays T P Phengsintham  (P32)
Corynespora sp. Dematiaceae Decaying on petiole of Calamus flagellum T S Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a
Gyrotrix sp. Dematiaceae Decaying on petiole of Cocos nucifera T S Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a
Passalora aenea (Cif.) U. Braun & Crous Dematiaceae On living leaf of Cassia siamea T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Passalora benninghii(Allesch.) R. F. Castañeda & U.  Braun Dematiaceae On living leaf of Manihot  utilissima T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Passalora bougainvilliae (Munt.-Cvetk.) R.F. Castañeda & U. Braun Dematiaceae On living leaf of Bougainvillea  spectabilis T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Passalora capsicicola (Vassiljevsky) U. Braun and F. Freire. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Capsicum annuum T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Passalora dipterocarpii P. Phengsintham, K.D. Hyde. & U. Braun sp.nov. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Dipterocarpus  alatus T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Passalora erytrinae (Ellis & Everh.) U. Braun & Crous. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Erythrina stricta T P Phengsintham  (P27)
Passalora haldinae C. Nakash. & Meeboon Dematiaceae On living leaf of Haldina  cordifolia T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Passalora helicteris-viscidae P. Phengsintham, E. Chukeatirote, K. Abdelsalam, K.D.  Hyde. & U. Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Helicteres viscida T P Phengsintham et  al., 2009
Passalora perfoliati (Ellis &Everh) U. Braun & Crous. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Chromolaena sp. T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Passalora tithoniae (R. E. D. Naker & W. T. Dale) U. Braun &  Crous. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Tithonia diversifolia T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Penicillium sp. Dematiaceae Decaying on petiole of Livistona chinensis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a
Periconiela lygodii Arch. Singh, Bhalla & S.K. Singh ex U. Braun Dematiaceae On living leaf of Lygodium flexuosum T P Phengsintham  (P579)
Pestalotiopsis smilasis (Schusinithze) Sutton Coelomyces Decaying on petiole of Cocos nucifera T S Phengsintham  & Hyde, P2003a
Pseudocercospora alacicola (Muthappa) Kamal, M.K. Khan & R.K. Verma Dematiaceae On living leaf of Olax  scandens T P Phengsintham  (P192)
Pseudocercospora alangii Y.L. Guo & X.L. Liu Dematiaceae On living leaf of Alangium kurzii T P Phengsintham  (P596)
Pseudocercospora baliospermi (S. Chowdry) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Baliospermum montanum T P Phengsintham  (P549)
Pseudocercospora buddleiae (W. Yammam) Goh & W.H. Hsieh Dematiaceae On living leaf of Buddleia  asiatica T P Phengsintham  (P560)
Pseudocercospora cassiae-occidentalis (J.M. Yen) J.M.Yen Dematiaceae On living leaf of Cassia  occidentalis T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora catappae (Henn.) X.J. Liiu &Y. L. Guo Dematiaceae On living leaf of Terminalia  tomentosa T P Phengsintham  (P543)
Pseudocercospora centromaticola (J.M. Yen & G. Lim) J.M. Yen Dematiaceae On living leaf of Centrosema T P Phengsintham  (P44)
Pseudocercospora combretigena U. Braun Dematiaceae On living leaf of Calycopteris  floribunda T P Phengsintham  (P545)
Pseudocercospora cotizensis (A.S. Mull. & Chupp) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Crotalaria  uncinella subsp. elliptica T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora cruenta (Sacc.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Mucuna pruriens T P Phengsintham  (P565)
Pseudocercospora cyclea (Chidd.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Cyclea  peltata T P Phengsintham  (P90)
Pseudocercosporaduabangae M.D. Mehrotra & R.K. Verma Dematiaceae On living leaf of Duabanga grandiflora T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora ecdysantherae (J.M. Yen) J. M. Yen Dematiaceae On living leaf of Ecdysanthera  rosea T P Phengsintham  (P133)
Pseudocercospora eupatorii–formasani U. Braun & Bagyan. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Chromolaena  odorata T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora formasana (W. Yamam) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Lantanacamara T P Phengsintham  (P576)
Pseudocercospora fuligena (Roldan) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Lycopersicon  esculentum T P Phengsintham  (P49)
Pseudocercospora giranensis Sawada ex Goh & W.H. Hsieh Dematiaceae On living leaf of Glochidion  eriocarpum T P Phengsintham  (P181)
Pseudocercospora gmelinae (J.M. Yen & Gilles) J.M. Yen Dematiaceae On living leaf of Gmelina arborea T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora holarrhenae (Thirun. & Chupp.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Holarrhena  curtisii T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora ixora (Solh.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Ixora stricta T P Phengsintham  (P50)
Pseudocercospora jussiaeae (G. F. Atk.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Ludwigia  prostrata T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora lythracearum (Heald & F.A. Wolf) X.J.  Liu & Y.L. Guo Dematiaceae On living leaf of Lagerstroemia macrocarpa T P Phengsintham  (P611)
Pseudocercospora macarangae (Sud. & P. Syd.) Deaighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Macarangae  denticulata T P Phengsintham  (P564)
Pseudocercospora maesae (Hansf.) X.J. Liu & Y.L. Guo Dematiaceae On living leaf of Maesa  ramentacea T P Phengsintham  (P575)
Pseudocercospora malloticola Goh & Hsieh. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Mallotus thorelii T P Phengsintham (P588)
Pseudocercospora mannanorensis var.  paucifasciculata P. Phengsintham, E. Chukeatirote,K. Abdelsalam, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Microcos paniculata T P Phengsintham et  al., 2009
Pseudocercospora melochiae (Henn.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Melochia  corchorifolia T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora musae (Zimm.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Musa sapientum T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora namae (Dearn. & House) U. Braun & Crous Dematiaceae On living leaf of Hydrolea  zeylanica T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora ocimicola (Petr. & Cif.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Ocimum  tenuiflorum T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora paraguayensis (Tak. Kobay.) Crous Dematiaceae On living leaf of Eucalyptus sp. T P Phengsintham  (P405)
Pseudocercospora piperis (Pat.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Piper lolot T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora polygonicola (A.K. Kar & M. Mandal) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Polygonumpulchrum T P Phengsintham  (P599)
Pseudocercospora puderi Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Rosa chinensis T P Phengsintham  (P164)
Pseudocercospora puerariicola (W. Yamam.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Pueraria phaseoloides T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora punicae (Henn.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Punica granatum T P Phengsintham et  al., 2011
Pseudocercospora sarcocephalii (Venn-Bourg) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Sarcocephaluscordatus T P Phengsintham  (P358)
Pseudocercospora scopariicola (J.M. Yen) Dieghton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Scoparia dulcis T P Phengsintham  (P644)
Pseudocercospora sp. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Micromelum hirsutum T P Phengsintham  (P582)
Pseudocercospora sphaerellae-eugeniae (Sacc.) Crous, Alfenas &  R. W. Barreto Dematiaceae On living leaf of Sysygium  cuminii T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora stahlii (F. Stevens) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Passiflora  foetida T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora tabernaemontanae (Syd. & P. Syd.)  Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Tabernaemontana  coronaria T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora testonicola Ten, Kas & Das. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Tectona  grandis T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora tetramilisA.N. Shukla & Sarmah Dematiaceae On living leaf of Tetrameles nudiflora T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora tiliacora (A.K. Kar & M.  Mandal) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Tiliacora  triandra T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora trematicola (J.M. Yen) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Trema orientale T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Pseudocercospora trichophila (F. Stevens) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Solanum  undatum T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercospora wendlandiae (U. Braun & Crous) B. Sutton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Wendlandiathorelii T P Phengsintham  (P512)
Pseudocercospora writiae (Thirum. & Chupp) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Wrightia  pubescens T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010a
Pseudocercosporella bakeri (Syd. & P. Syd.) Deighton Dematiaceae On living leaf of Ipomoea aquatica T P Frank et al,  2010
Scolecostigmina mangiferae (Koord) U. Braun & Mouch. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Mangifera  indica T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Spegazzinia tessarthra (Berk & Curt.) Sacc. Dematiaceae Decaying on petiole of Lcuala grandis T S Phengsintham  & Hyde, 2003a
Spirops clavatus (Ellis & Martin) M. B. Ellis. Dematiaceae On living leaf of Mangifera indica T P Phengsintham  (P390)
Zasmidium aporosae PPhengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Aporosa  villosa T P Phengsintham et  al., 2009
Zasmidium jasmicola PPhengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Jasminum  undulatum T P Phengsintham et al.,  2009
Zasmidium maynae-laxifloraePPhengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U.  Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Meyna  pubescens T P Phengsintham et  al., 2009
Zasmidium micromeli PPhengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Micromelum hirsutum T P Phengsintham et  al., 2010b
Zasmidium pavetae PPhengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Pavetta  indica T P Phengsintham et  al., 2009
Zasmidium sp. (2) Dematiaceae On living leaf of Dalbergia  cultrata T P Phengsintham  (P550)
Zasmidium sp.(1) Dematiaceae On living leaf of Spondias  pinnata T P Phengsintham  (P605)
Zasmidium suregadae PPhengsintham, K.D. Hyde & U. Braun sp.nov Dematiaceae On living leaf of Suregada  multiflora T P Phengsintham et  al., 2009

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Directory of Asian Systematic Mycologists

Professor Z.C. Chen, Chairman of AMC has commissioned Dr TricitaQuimio to prepare a Directory of Asian Systematic Mycologists. TheDirectory, which identifies and provides information on the activities ofmycologists working in universities, government laboratories, privatecompanies, or other centres located within IMACA’s sphere of operation, iscurrently being compiled. Currently, some 200 mycologists from Bangladesh,Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Malaysia,Philippines, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand andVietnam are listed.
The purpose of this important initiative is to provide for better communicationbetween mycologists from different countries within the region, and to promotegreater interaction and cooperation. Its success will depend on theparticipation of our readers who are encouraged to register.
If you would like to be included in the first edition of the Directory, pleasecontact Dr Quimio without delay at :-
The Department of Plant Pathology, University of the Philippines at Los Banos,College, Laguna, Philippines, FAX 63 94 9363551 or by e-mail at: forfurther information.

ProfilesOf Committee Members

Dr. Kyung-Hee MIN (Republic ofKorea)

Dr. Kyung-Hee Min is currently the Head ofthe Department of Biology at Sookmyung Women’s University inSeoul. He received his B.Sc. and M.S. from SeoulNational University. After obtaining his Ph.D. from theUniversity of Tsukuba in Japan, he joined the Faculty of Sookmyung Women’sUniversity in 1976 as Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology. Sincereturning to the Republic of Korea in early 1975, he has introduced severalmycology courses at his university. His early research involved theidentification of imperfect fungi at Sookmyung Women’s University and, as aPostdoctoral Fellow at the Institute for Fermentation, Osaka, he worked on theidentification and ecology of hyphomycete fungi in paddy fields. He laterconducted a physiological and biochemical study on Cryptococcus neoformanswhile working as a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Clinical Mycology Section of theNational Institute of Health, Bethesda, U.S.A. After his return to Korea in1983, he has been involved in the identification of mushrooms for mycologicalcourses. Aside from taxonomy, Dr. Min is also engaged in research on themolecular genetics of Neurospora crassa, and phylogenetic relationships ofthe genus Pleurotus using allozyme and RAPD analyses. His current researchinterests focus on the systematics of hyphomycete fungi and fungal moleculargenetics. Dr Min is a former President of the Mycological Society of Korea anda committee member of the International Mycological Association forAsia. He has published over 40 scientific papers and has undertakennumerous academic visits to universities and research institutes in Japan,Europe and the United States.

Dr. Larissa N. VASSILYEVA (Russia)

Dr. Larissa N. Vassilyevais a leading scientist at the Institute of Biology and Soil Science, FarEast Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Vladivostok). Aftergraduating from Leningrad University in 1972, she began to study microscopicfungi of the Russian Far East and completed her PhD thesis (1979) entitled”Micromycetes of Kolyma High Lands (MagadanRegion)”. Later, she focused on pyrenomycetes and their systemelaboration and, in 1992, was awarded the degree of Doctor of Sciences atSaint-Petersburg for her thesis “Pyrenomycetes of the Russian FarEast.” She has published over 80 papers and written several booksincluding “Pyrenomycetes and Loculoascomycetes of the Northern FarEast” (1987), “Systematics in Mycology” (1990), “Platonismin Systematics” (1992), and “System of Pyrenomycetes”(1994). She has described overt 50 new species and 5 new genera, and hasproposed overt 80 new combinations during a revision of the pyrenomycetoussystem. Her latest work, “Pyrenomycetous Fungi of the Russian FarEast”, comprising about700 species, will be published in near future.

Dr. Teck Koon TAN (Singapore)

Dr Teck Koon Tan is Associate Professor in the Department ofBiological Sciences of the National University of Singapore. Aftergraduating from the former University of Singapore and then going on tosuccessfully complete a Ph.D degree programme, he joined the staff of theDepartment of Botany (now part of the Department of Biological Sciences) in1981. He teaches undergraduate degree courses in general mycology, fungalbiodiversity and fungal aspects of plant pathology, mycological components of apostgraduate degree course on plant biology, and has supervised numerous M.Sc.and Ph.D students. His major research interests include marine fungi, fungalairspora, and fungal plant interactions. Current research projects includestudies on Halophytophthora, tropical aerobiology and fungal allergens,Pseudocercospora-host interactions, Rhizoctonia-orchid symbiosis, and fungalchitosan. He also undertakes consultancy work involving fungal biodeteriorationof consumer products and fungal growth on/in buildings. Dr Tan has been one ofthe two Secretaries to IMACA since 1990.

Dr. Amulya Bikash BASAK (Bangladesh)

Dr. Amulya Bikash Basak isa professor in the Department ofBotany of the University of Chittagong. He received his B.Sc,M.Sc. and Ph.D degrees from the same Department and University in 1975, 1976and 1994, respectively. His M.Sc. thesis was entitled “Detection ofseed-borne fungal pathogens from rough rice grains and their controlmeasure” and his Ph.D thesis was entitled, “Studies on fungal fruitrot diseases of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) occurring in Chittagongdistrict.” In 1995, he undertook a one month period of postdoctoralresearch training at the Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI) inJodhpur, India. Professor Basak has been involved in the identification ofFungi Imperfecti from leaves, stems and seeds of several important crops grownin Bangladesh and from soils used to grow these crops. He has recorded newfungal species from different hosts such as chilli, brinjal, sunflower, bean,ponyal (Calophylum enophylum Linn.) and jackfruit. Aside from taxonomy, Dr.Basak is also engaged in research on the detection of seed-borne fungalpathogens of different crops, histopathological characters of fungi, and theirtransmission from seed to seedling. He has taught Mycology and PlantPathology since 1979, and has supervised eight M.Sc. students. He has publishedover 33 scientific papers and, in 1989, his book entitled “Crop DiseasesAnd Control”, written in Bengali, was published by the Bangladesh Academyof Rural Development (BARD).

Professor Chiu-yuan CHIEN (Taiwan)

Professor Chien is the Director of the Mycology Laboratory atthe National Taiwan Normal University. He received a B.S. degree in Botany fromthe National Taiwan University in 1959 and remained there as a TeachingAssistant until 1964. He then moved to Tokyo University of Education where hewas awarded an M.Phil. in 1966 and a Ph.D in 1969, and then spent two years asa Research Associate in the Department of Plant Pathology at the University ofGeorgia in Athens before returning to the National Taiwan Normal University.His research interests include fungal systematics with emphasis on theMucorales, and the conservation of fungal cultures. He is a Member of theMycological Society of America, the Mycological Society of Japan, and of boththe Mycological Society and the Botanical Society of the Republic of China. Heis also one of the two secretaries of A.M.C.

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AnIntroduction To Asian Mycological Institutions


Laboratory of Lower Plants,Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far East Branch of the Russian Academyof Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.

The Laboratory of Lower Plants was organized in 1949 by Dr.Lyubov Vassilyeva, a specialist on mushrooms. Two editions of her book”Edible and Poisonous Fungi of the Far East” are popularpublications. Dr Vassilyeva was well-versed in many groups of lower plantsand trained specialists not only in mycology (Drs. Zinaida Azbukuna, IrinaBunkuna, Margarita Nazarova, Eugenia Bulakh), but also lichenology (Dr.Lyudmila Knyazheva), algology (Dr. Lyudmila Kukharenko), and bryology (Dr.Valentina Cherdantseva). Her former students now work at the Far East StateUniversity and in the Laboratory of Lower Plants.

At present, mycologists predominate in the Laboratory. The Head ofthe Laboratory is Dr. Lina Egorova who studies Hyphomycetes and is the authorof the monograph “Soil Fungi of Far East – Hyphomycetes” (1986) whichincludes 553 species. At present, she is working on fungi of the familyMoniliaceae, treating them for the volume devoted to Hyphomycetes in the series”Lower Plants, Fungi and Mosses of the Russian Far East”. As a resultof her investigations, some species were reported in the region for thefirst time. Most of these new species were found in the Kamchatka Peninsula andinclude Ramularia alnicola Cooke, R.canadensis Ellis et Everh., R. graminella(Hoehn.) U. Braun, R. lonicerae Vogl. She also described economically importanthyphomycetous fungi such as Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams et D. Hawksw.which causes a decay of leaf vagina in rice plants, and Sesquicilliumcandelabrum (Bonord.) W. Gams. which attacks the roots of coniferous seedlings.

The previous Head of the Laboratory, Dr. Zinaida Azbukina, is aspecialist on the Uredinales and Ustilaginales, and author of the monographs”Rust Fungi of Far East” (1974) and “The Manual of Rust Fungi ofSoviet Far East” (1984). She identified 506 species from this region.In 1995, this information was extended when she participated in a joint projectwith Drs Y. Ono, M. Kakishina and S. Kaneko of Japan. They described theinteresting rust fungus Triphragmiopsis laricinum (Chou) Tai on Larix, knownpreviously only from China and Korea. Cerothelium tanakae S. Ito was found onFalcata japonica (Oliv.) Kom. for the first time in Russia. Moreover, theydiscovered a new species Coleosporium synuri (Azb.) on Synurus deltoides (Ait.)Nakari. Previously, this fungus was reported only in uredinia in Japan, Chinaand Korea. At present she is the scientific editor of a series of monographs”The Lower Plants, Fungi and Mosses of the Russian Far East”, threevolumes of which have already been published.

The third Doctor of Sciences in the Laboratory is LarissaNikolaevna Vasilyeva who represents Russia on the IMA Committee forAsia. She is engaged in research on pyrenomycetous fungi and haspublished several monographs including “Pyrenomycetes and Loculoascomycetesof the Northern Far East” ,”Systematics in Mycology” and”Systematics of Pyrenomycetes”. The former is the fourth volumein the series “Lower Plants, Fungi and Mosses of the Russian FarEast” which contains about 700 species of which 27 are newly described. Shewould be pleased to hear from pyrenomycetologists within Asia who areinterested in joint projects aimed at producing an inventory of the abovementioned fungi in Asiatic countries and in the publication of a monographseries.

Dr. Margarita Nazarova is a specialist on mushrooms, mostlyBoletaceae. She worked in the Laboratory previously, and is now the onlyuniversity teacher among mycologists in the Russian Far East. Due to herefforts and enthusiasm, and her ability to stimulate students interest in fungi,lichens, and algae, the Laboratory is continually reinforced with youngworkers. One of her recent wards is now a post-graduate student and studiesfungi as indicators of environmental conditions. The aphyllophorous fungi ofthe reserve “Kedrovaya Pad” are the subject of a graduate programmesupervised by Dr Nazarova.

Dr. Eugenia Bulakh specialises in the Agaricales. She wasresponsible for the section on Russulaceae in the first volume of the series”Lower Plants, Fungi and Mosses of the Russian Far East” published in1990. She is continuing her investigations with emphasis on theTricholomataceae, 13 species of which were found in the Russian Far East forthe first time. These include such interesting species as Marasmiusaurantio-ferrugineus Hongo known previously only from Japan, and Mycenalamprospora (Corner) Korak, which occurs on some islands of North Pacific. Inher revision of earlier findings of tricholomataceous fungi in our region, shediscovered that the name Marasmiellus vaillantii (Fr.) Sing. has a priorityover Marasmius dryophyllus L. Vass. described by the late Lubov NikolaevnaVasilyeva.

Dr. Olga Govorova is an expert on the Ustilaginales,Auriculariales, Tremellales and Dacrymycetales, and the author of the monograph”Smut Fungi of the Soviet Far East” (1990) in which 299 smut speciesare described. Her treatment of the Ustilaginales in our region, incollaboration with Drs I.V. Karatygin (St. Petersburg) and Z.M.Azbukina, was also published in the third volume of “Lower Plants,Fungi and Mosses of the Russian Far East”. At present, she isresearching some orders of heterobasidiomycetous fungi, and her new findingswould be of special interest to Asiatic mycologists. For example, shediscovered in the Russian Far East for the first time such species asAuricularia minor Kobayasi and Exidia uvapassa Lloyd, previously known onlyfrom Japan, as well as Calocera sinensis McNabb and Tremella aurantialbaBandoni et Zang reported only in China.

Dr. Alexander Mikulin is a lichenologist and author of “TheGuide for Identification of Lichens of Kamchatka Peninsula” (1990). Healso participated in the preparation of the book “Macrolichens of thePacific Northwest” in cooperation with colleagues from Oregon StateUniversity.

Anna Bogacheva is a post-graduate student. She graduated from FarEast State University where she displayed an interest in discomycetous fungiand joined mycologists of the Laboratory of Lower Plants in field work. She iscurrently working on the identification of discomycetes, and her efforts arecontributing to our knowledge of fungi in the Russian Far East. Thus, herstudies have extended the distribution range for such endemic species asSarcoscypha vassilievii Raitv. and Albotricha kurilensis Raitv., as well asdescribed Sclerotinia mali Takachosi which was previously reported only inJapan. Now she is now writing her Ph.D. dissertation on discomycetes(Pezizales and Leotiales) occurring in Primorsky Territory.

Dr. Mikhail Pivkin and Dr Lyubov Zvereva. Dr Pivkin, a phytopatologist,works at the Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. In 1995, he beganinvestigating fungi (mostly deuteromycetes) of benthos in marine localities andtheir biological activity. More than 2000 strains have been obtained inculture, and about half of these are deposited in KMM. Dr. Zvereva, also aspecialist on marine mycology, works at the Institute of Marine Biology whereshe is investigating the species composition and ecology of lignicolous,phycolous and arenicolous ascomycetes and deuteromycetes. Special attention isfocused on marine fungi invading the thallus of Laminaria which is cultivatedin the Russian Far East.

Although not very numerous, Russian Far East mycologists representa highly active scientific group. They are fortunate in being able to studyfungi in a region where features of North American, East Asian and Euro-Asianflora combine and interact, and which is characterized by a rich biodiversityof vascular plants. The latter implies a corresponding diversity of fungiassociated with these plants, and the number of new and interesting findingsspeaks for itself. Over the two last years, a project involving “Fungi ofReserve Ecosystems in the Russian Far East” was supported by a grant fromthe International Science Foundation.

Although participation in conferences held overseas is stilldifficult, mycologists in the region do their best to become involved in suchmeetings. For example, several mycologists submitted abstracts of theirresearch to the XVIII Pacific Science Congress held in Beijing, China.Collaboration with colleagues abroad interested in the mycobiota of theNorthern Pacific and in the work of the region’s mycologists is always welcome.


Department of Biology and Chemistry,City University of Hong Kong

The Department’s active group of mycologists was strengthened inMay, 1997, when Professor E B Gareth Jones joined the City University as theRoyal Society Kan Tan Po Visiting Professor for 12 months. During hisstay, he continued his research on mangrove fungi, their taxonomy, ecology andphysiology.

Earlier, in September 1996, Dr Stephen Pointing joined theMycology Group as a Postdoctoral Fellow to work on cellulolytic activities ofmarine fungi in collaboration with Professor John Buswell of The ChineseUniversity of Hong Kong. Ms Choi Yuen Wah was employed as a ResearchAssistant to work on the project entitled “Diversity of Subtropical andTropical Coelomycetes and the Production of Bioactive Compounds” under thesupervision of Professor Jones.

The Molecular Biology group is also active in mycological-relatedresearch with Dr So Chi-Leung, Mr Liao Xiang Hai and Mr Stephen Kim working ona project entitled “Molecular Investigation of the b-Lactam BiosyntheticGenes in Marine Fungi”.

During the past year, Mr Luo Wen has registered as a Ph.D studentto work on the project “Growth Studies of Marine Fungi”, under thesupervision of Dr Lilian Vrijmoed and Prof. Gareth Jones.

Two research grants have been awarded by the University to DrLilian Vrijmoed to work on “The mycota associated with the mangrove plantKandelia candel and their decomposition” and on “Utilisation ofwastes using marine microbes”. Prof E B Gareth Jones alsoobtained University funding to work on “Diversity of Subtropical andTropical Coelomycetes and the Production of Bioactive Compounds”. A jointresearch programme entitled “Novel metabolites of marine fungi” wasalso initiated between Dr Lilian Vrijmoed and Professor E B G Jones of CityUniversity and Professor Yong-shing Lin and Professor Shining Zhou of ZhongshanUniversity, Guangzhou, China. The collaborative project is supported by a grantfrom the National Science Foundation, PRC.

In May 1997, Dr Lilian Vrijmoed completed a Hong Kong Governmentconsultancy project aimed at obtaining baseline information on the quantitativeand qualitative aspects of fungal spore load in the indoor environment ofoffice buildings and public areas such as restaurants and cinemas.

Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong

The Department has a large and active research group engaged onvarious aspects of tropical mycology. Initially, the group focused itsactivities on traditional taxonomic research on the biodiversity of fungi intropical aquatic habitats and on palms, but has since extended its range ofinterests and activities to include a wider range of host plants, fungalpathogenic and wood-decaying activities within hosts and substrates, andultrastructural and molecular approaches to taxonomy.

The group is under the overall direction of Dr. K.D. Hyde and theDepartmental Head, Professor I.D. Hodgkiss. Research projects currently inprogress include: (a) a comparison of endophytic and saprophytic microfungi onthree genera of palms throughout Hong Kong, Brunei and Australia; (b) comparisonof the mycoflora of three palm species planted across the globe to determine ifpalm fungi travel concomitantly with their hosts or whether new mycotatakes over following introduction of the host to a new environment; (c) fungalbiodiversity on Pandanaceae and species of bamboo; (d) an investigation todetermine the existence of an endophytic phase in the life cycles of fungalpathogens associated with Citrus Stem End Rot; (e) seasonal changes in fungalbiodiversity and the vertical distribution of fungi on grasses and sedgesoccurring in estuarine, freshwater and terrestrial habitats in Hong Kong.

Several research projects are directed specifically at freshwaterfungi and include: (i) the taxonomy of aquatic ascomycetes and hyphomycetes;(ii) the biodiversity and ultrastructure of fungi on woody substrates submergedin streams and rivers in Brunei, Malaysia and Hong Kong; (iii) thewood-degrading abilities of tropical freshwater fungi; and (iv) the effects ofhuman activities (e.g. industrial pollution) on the fungal assemblages offreshwater habitats in the region.

Two projects directed at producing monographs of the respectivetaxa are (a) a re-evaluation of the taxa in the Phyllachoraceae in Australia,and (b) an examination of species within the genus Anthostomella.

Several projects are underway involving molecular andultrastructural analyses, complementing on-going research based onmorphological characters. These include (a) the application of moleculartechniques to the taxonomy of the Bipolaris-Curvularia complex; (b) molecularsystematics of Amphisphaeriaceous fungi; (c) DNA sequencing to verify specieswithin Annulatascus and related species; (d) molecular systematics of thePleosporales, the Melanommatales, and the genus Massarina; (e) a comparativeanalysis of molecular and traditional techniques for studying endophytebiodiversity within palm tissue; and (f) electron microscopy to elucidate theultrastructure of Annulatascus and Massarina species. Some of the research isin collaboration with other institutions including the University ofPortsmouth, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, City University of Hong Kong, andthe Australian Council for International Agricultural Research.

Other activities include the preservation and maintenance of aherbarium and a fungal culture collection with a current accession of record ofover 1400 cultures. Funding has also been received recently to develop a Centrefor Research in Fungal Biodiversity.

News FromThe Regions


International Symposium on “Ecology of Fungi”.

An international symposium on “Ecology of Fungi” washeld at the International Centre in Goa from 20-22 January, 1998. The symposiumwas organised jointly by IMACA and the Mycological Association of India (MSI),and sponsored by IMACA, MSI, the Department of Science and Technology,Government of India, the British Mycological Society, Himedia Laboratories PVTLimited (Mumbai), The Scientific Instrument Co. Ltd (Mumbai), ScientekInstruments PVT. Ltd (Bangalore), and Kare Pharma (Goa).

The scientific programmeincluded the Presidential Address of MSI by Professor R.S. Mehrotra entitled”Certain aspects of Trichoderma taxonomy, ecology, biology andcontrol”, and two Plenary Lectures, “Some advances in fungal ecologyover the past 50 years” by Professor John Webster, and “Theexcitement of doing mycology in the tropics” by Professor C.V.Subramanian. The five oral and five poster sessions comprising the main body ofthe 3-day international symposium covered the following major areas: CommunityStructure and Function; Organic Matter Degradation and Physiology; Fungus/PlantAssociations; Diversity; and Anthropogenic Effects and Epidemiology. Socialevents included a Symposium Dinner, and a delightful presentation oftraditional Goan dancing.

The symposium was a great success, and warm thanks are extended toProfessor B.S. Sonde, Vice Chancellor, Goa University, to the Organizers underthe Chairmanship of Professor B.C. Lodha, with a special mention for theConference Secretariat, Drs D.J. Bhat and S. Raghukumar, and to the Sponsorsfor their generous support.

A selection of papers presented at the Symposium will be publishedin the form of a Proceedings which is expected to be available in late1998/early 1999. Further information may be obtained from: Dr. S. Raghukumar,Scientist, B.O.D., National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004,India.


Mycological Society of China

The former affiliation of Mycological Society of China (MSC) as aDivision of the Botanical Society of China (BSC) was dissolved in 1993 so thatMSC is now an independent Society with a new statute distinct from BSC.

Founded in 1980, the Society’s aims are to promote the advancementof Mycology in China by organizing the academic exchanges and symposia or seminars,publishing periodicals, acting as the official mouthpiece for mycologists ofChina. Council consists of 25 members including President, Vice Presidents andSecretary. There are local branches in various provinces. NationalCongress attended by several hundred representatives in which the election ofnew council members is conducted is held very 4 years. Meetings ofdifferent specific topics are held each year. Membership is open to anyonepossessing at least a Bachelor’s degree. There are ca. 1700 members atpresent including student members and a few foreign members. The followingautonomous special Divisions are now being developed:

1. Division of Edible & Pharmaceutical Fungus Research.

2. Division of Entomogenous Fungus Research.

3. Division of Medical Mycology.

4. Division of Veterinary Mycology.

5. Division of Plant Pathogenic Fungus Research.

6. Division of Mycotoxin and Antifungal Agents Research.

7. Division of Mycorrhizal Research.

8. Division of Industrial Mycology & Fungal Genetics.



A quarterly journal that publishes original research papers andreviews in all aspects of Mycology and Lichenology. Articles are publishedin Chinese with abstracts in English. Each issue contains 80 pages andeach volume 320 pages. Fourteen volumes have been published since 1982 andthe journal entered its 15th year of publication in 1996. Subscription ison an annual basis. Orders should be sent to China International BookTrading corporation, P.O. Box 399, Beijing. Editorial office: Institute ofMicrobiology Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080.


A journal to be published quarterly. Contributions areaccepted in all aspects of Mycology. Publications will be published in eitherEnglish with Chinese abstracts or Chinese with English abstracts. The editorialboard consists of young mycologists in China. All communications should beaddressed to Prof. Li Yu, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin130118.


A serial publications issued at irregular intervals, edited byDivision of Entomogenous Fungus Research of MSC. Recent issue (vol.3) waspublished in 1993. All communications should be addressed to Prof. LiZeng-zhi, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036.


Visit of Foreign Mycologists

Two staff from the International Mycological Institute (IMI), Dr.David Smith and Dr. Paul Kirk of the United Kingdom, visited the MycologyLaboratory and the Mycological Herbarium at the Department of Plant Pathologyof the University of the Philippines at Los Banos. They also visited allthe major culture collections in the country. Their visit is part of theirmission to help member countries under the Center for Agriculture and BioscienceInternational (CABI) in cooperation with the Philippines Council forAgriculture Resources Research and Development (PCARRD). They will assistin the preparation of a proposal for the bioconservation of microbial geneticresources and microbial inventory in the region.

Dr Richard Hanlin, Department of Plant Pathology, University ofGeorgia, and former President of the Mycological Society of America, visitedthe Mycology Laboratory at UPLB in June 1997.

Foreign Visits of A.M.C. member

From 1-15 November, Dr. T.H. Quimio visited the MolecularSystematics Laboratory, Los Angeles Museum of Natural History for trainingin the use of the PCR method for identifying mushroom strains under thesupervision of Dr. Don R. Reynolds.


Singapore Institute of Biology

A new journal: Asian Journal of Tropical Biology. The journal isdevoted to the publication of original papers, review articles and otherfeatures in the broad field of tropical biology. All contributions andunsolicited review papers are subject to international review. Contributions ontropical mycology are welcome. These may be mailed to the Managing Editor(H.H.Yeo, e.mail: or IMACA’s representative(T.K.Tan, e.mail: at: Department of BiologicalSciences, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119260.Copies of “Instructions to Authors” are available on request.


Mycological Association of Hong Kong

The Mycological Association of Hong Kong (MAHK) was established on13th February, 1997 and presently has over 30 members. The followingmycologists currently serve on the Association’s first Committee: ProfessorI.J. Hodgkiss (Chairman), Dr. K.D.Hyde (Secretary), Dr Stephen Pointing(Treasurer), Prof. John Buswell, Dr Lilian Vrijmoed and Mr W.H. Ho. TheAssociation will promote mycological education and research in the SpecialAdministrative Region and will publish a regular Newsletter providinginformation on its activities.

The inaugural meeting of MAHK was held at the University of HongKong on Friday, 6th June 1997. Both the British Mycological Association andIMACA sent messages of support to the new Association. This was followed by theFirst Annual Meeting of MAHK. Professor E.B.G. Jones was guest speaker andpresented a lecture on “Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids fromwaste materials”. The one day meeting included a further 16 researchpapers and 3 posters covering ecological, applied and molecular aspects ofmycology. An award for the best paper was made to Mr. W.H. Ho for his paperentitled “An ultrastructural study on the conidia of Cancelisporium andSporoschima (Hyphomycetes).” The day’s events were followed by a buffetdinner to celebrate the formation of the Association.

The Second Annual Meeting of MAHK was held on campus of TheChinese University of Hong Kong on 29th May and included a guest lecture,”Mycology and the Australian Eucalypt Forest”, delivered by DrJack Simpson, President of the Australasian Mycological Society. The remainderof the scientific programme consisted of 16 oral and 6 poster presentationscovering a wide range of mycological topics including fungal physiology andbiochemistry, molecular mycology, fungal ecology and systematics, and appliedmycology. The meeting was attended by over 40 mycologists from CUHK, Hong KongUniversity and City University. Ms. Deng Yu, an M.Phil. student from theDepartment of Biology at CUHK, was awarded the Association’s annual prize forthe best student presentation, and a design by Mr Jake Tang, also from the University’sBiology Department, was selected as the official MAHK logo. The Associationreceived congratulatory letters from Professor Z.C. Chen, Chairman of IMACA,and Professor S.T. Chang, Vice-President of the World Society of MushroomBiology and Mushroom Products.


A.M.C. conducted a ‘Fungal Flora Expedition of NepalHimalaya’ in October, 1997 under the leadership of Dr. Z.C. Chen in whichTaiwanese, Japanese and Nepalese mycologist participated. Expeditionmembers collected numerous mushrooms, mycorrhiza and soil fungi. The Departmentof Plant Resources, Plant Research Division, published ‘Fungi of Nepal PartI” in 1996 and Part II in 1997. Usha Budathoki, Nepal’s representative onIMACA, published an article entitled ‘Paraphialocephala Gen. Nov. A FolicolousHyphomycetes’ in Recent Researches in Ecology, Environment and Pollution Vol.10 Himalayan Microbial Diversity, New Delhi, 1996. The Mycological Society ofNepal has been established under the Chairmanship of Dr. Usha Budathoki.Dr. Ji-Yul-Lee of Korea visited Nepal, collected mushrooms and held discussionswith Nepalese mycologists. In 1996, Dr. Usha Budathoki participated in theNineteenth Bangladesh Science Conference organised by the BangladeshAssociation for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). In 1997, she participated inthe 9th Biennial Botanical Conference, also in Bangladesh.


The Mycological Association of Korea

The The Annual AutumnScientific Meeting of the Mycological Association of Korea was held at DongkukUniversity, Seoul, 19-20th December, 1997. The meeting was organised inconjunction with the Third Korea-China Joint Mycological Seminar which includedover 20 mycologists from mainland China. The next Korea-China JointMycological Seminar is scheduled to be held in China in 1999, and mycologistsfrom other countries are encouraged to attend. Further information can beobtained from Dr. M.W.Lee, President, Mycological Society of Korea, DongkukUniversity, Seoul, Korea.


A symposium on identification techniques for mycological resourceswas held at the National Museum of Natural Science (NMNS) in Taichung from19-21 December, 1997. The purpose of the symposium, which was sponsored by theNational Science Council Life Science Promotion Center, was to develop aninterest in mycology among the younger generation of Taiwan. Professor Z.C.Chen, Chairman of IMACA, chaired the symposium and fifteen specialists wereinvited to give lectures in their particular areas of expertise. Undergraduatesand graduates from colleges and universities throughout the country were among136 participants attending the meeting. The symposium included a day oflectures at the NMNS followed by a two-day fungal foray centred around theHei-Sun Forest Experimental Station, National Chung-Hsing University which islocated approximately 1500 metres above sea-level.

In May this year, Professor F. Oberwinkler, President of theInternational Mycological Association, and Dr. J.C. Chen visited Taiwan inorder to collect jelly fungi from the Central Mountains area. During his visit,Professor Oberwinkler delivered a seminar entitled “Basidiomycetes andtheir host plants – coevolving associations” in the Department of Botanyat the National Taiwan University

Profiles of Committee Members

Professor Zuei Ching CHEN (Taiwan)

Professor Chen is Professor of Botany at the National TaiwanUniversity (NTU) in Taipei. He obtained his B.S. from NTU, and M.S. and Ph.Ddegrees from the State University of New York at Syracuse before joining thefaculty of NTU in 1971. His research interests include: rust fungi of foresttrees and grasses, wood decay fungi and their applications, the cultivation oflignicolous edible fungi, mycorrhizae of natural plant communities, aerobiologyof fungal spores, host-parasite interactions in diseases of forest trees,molecular taxonomy of fungi, and the taxonomy of the Aphyllophorales. He isalso engaged in a general floristic survey of Formosan fungi. Professor Chen isa member of the International Mycological Association and the InternationalAssociation of Aerobiology, and is currently the Chairman of the AsianMycological Committee.

Dr. Tricita H. QUIMIO (Philippines)

Dr. Tricita H. Quimio is a professor at the Department of PlantPathology, University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB). She obtainedher MS from the University of Florida and PhD from North Carolina StateUniversity. Since returning to the Philippines in the early 1970’s after hergraduate studies abroad, she has introduced new mycology courses ather institute, supervised 36 graduate students both from the Philippines and fromother Asian countries, and served as visiting professor to universities abroadacting as co-adviser and graduate committee member for mycology students atuniversities in Pakistan, India and Hong Kong. Mycology courses in manyuniversities in the Philippines and Thailand are now taught by her formerstudents. She has published over 100 papers and other works including severalstandard reference books on tropical fungi. A manual entitled “IllustratedGenera and Species of Plant Pathogenic Fungi in the Tropics”,written withDr. Hanlin of the University of Georgia, will be published shortly.

Aside from taxonomy, Dr. Quimio continues to conduct research onthe cultivation of tropical mushrooms and, in 1980, she organized aUNESCO-sponsored regional workshop on mushroom cultivation in Manila. She wasalso instrumental in establishing in 1980 the International Mushroom Societyfor the Tropics, and the Philippine Mushroom Society in 1988. She founded aMushroom Mycelial Bank for the Tropics, heads a Mushroom Training and DemonstrationUnit, serves as a scientific adviser on mushrooms for the InternationalFoundation for Science in Sweden, and is a international consultant forthe FAO in Rome assisting in the development of research and extensionprogrammes. Dr Quimio also re-established the mycological herbariumdestroyed during World War II. The herbarium, now a component of the UPLBMuseum of Natural History, contains over 10,000 specimens, some of which dateback to the 1890’s.

Dr. Jin-Torng PENG (Taiwan)

Dr Peng is Chief of theDepartment of Plant Pathology, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute. His mainresearch interests are: (a) survey, identification, sexuality, interfertility,cryopreservation of Gandoerma species in Taiwan; (b) survey, identification andcryopreservation of wild mushrooms in Taiwan; and (c) cultural improvement ofedible mushrooms, such as Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp. (includingPleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus cystidiosus.)

Dr. Sumalee PICHYANGKURA (Thailand)

Dr Pichyangkura is a professor in the Department of Microbiology,Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University. She received her B.Sc degree fromChulalongkorn University and then moved to Michigan State University toundertake postgraduate studies in Medical Mycology with Professor E.S.Beneke. After receiving an M.S degree, and in 1974 a Ph.D, she returned toThailand to teach and conduct research at Chulalongkorn University.Her research and expertise covers several areas of interest including:solid-state fermentation systems for enzyme production, ubiquinonedetection systems, identication of mushrooms, and fungal protoplast fusion. Shehas organised international conferences held in Bangkok and supported by UNESCOand the International Mycological Association, and has been a visitingscientist to Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyushu Universities in Japan, the University ofInnsbruck in Austria, and The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Professor John A. BUSWELL (HongKong)

Professor Buswell is a Senior Lecturer in the Department ofBiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong. He received his B.Sc. and Ph.Ddegrees from the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom and, before moving toHong Kong in 1990, has held posts in universities and research institutions inthe UK, United States, Sweden and France. His major research interests are:fungal-mediated biodegradation and bioconversion of lignocellulose; mushroomnutriceuticals; mushroom biotechnology; food microbiology; and microbialdegradation of xenobiotics. He is currently Co-Director, Hong Kong MIRCEN;Deputy Director, UNIDO-Chinese University of Hong Kong Centre for InternationalServices to Mushroom Biotechnology; Secretary/Treasurer, World Society forMushroom Biology and Mushroom Products (WSMBMP); and Editor of theWSMBMPBulletin.

Professor B.C. LODHA (India)

Professor Lodha is currently Head of the Department of PlantPathology, Rajasthan Agriculture University. After obtaining his Ph.D degreefrom Rajasthan University, he joined the faculty of the University in 1964 asAssistant Professor in the Department of Botany. After returning from theUniversity of Toronto where he was a postdoctoral fellow, he was AssociateProfessor in Plant Pathology at Haryana Agricultural University before hisappointment in 1984 to Professor of Plant Pathology at Rajasthan AgriculturalUniversity. His major research interests focus on the ecology and systematicsof ascomycete and hyphomycete fungi, and on the biological control of soilborne plant pathogens. He is a past Vice-President and President of the MycologicalSociety of India, a previous member of the International MycologicalAssociation, and is currently a member of the International Committee on PlantPathology Teaching and Training. He has published over 30 scientific papers andwritten several book chapters on mycological topics, and has undertakennumerous academic visits to universities and research institutes in NorthAmerica, Europe, Japan and Australia.

Dr. Jian-Yun ZHUANG (China)

Dr Zhuang graduated from Fujian Agricultural College in 1970 witha degree in Plant Protection, and in 1984 received his Ph.D from the GraduateSchool of the Academia Sinica. He is currently Research Professor at theInstitute of Microbiology, Academia Sinica, Beijing, and is a deputy directorof the Scientific Council of the Systematic Mycology and Lichenology Laboratory(SMLL) located at the Institute. His major research interests relate totaxonomic and biogeographical studies of Chinese rust fungi and he haspublished over 60 papers on rust taxonomy. He is currently a Member of theExecutive Council of the Mycological Association of China, DeputyEditor-in-Chief of Acta Mycologia Sinica, and a Member of the Editorial Boardfor Cryptogamic Flora of China.

Dr Djafar ERSHAD (Iran)

Dr Ershad is currently Head of the Department of Botany andResearch Scientist at the Plant Pest and Diseases Research Institute, Tehran,and also holds a teaching post at the Tarbiat Modares University in Tehran. Heis a Member of the Agricultural Branch of the Iranian Academy of Sciences,serves on the Committee for Agriculture, Scientific Research Council of Iran,and is a

Member of the EditorialBoard of the Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. He has published over 60papers in mycology and plant pathology, and is the author of the book,”Fungi of Iran”.

Anintroduction To Asian Mycological Institutions


Plant Pests and Diseases Institute(PPDRI), Tehran

The Plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute (PPDRI) wasestablished as government specialist institute in 1943. The Institute is madeup of ten departments including the Department of Botany which wasofficially founded in 1967 and now consists of three sparate sectionsincluding Mycology. The Mycological Section employs six scientific and threetechnical staff who work on the taxonomy of major fungal groups. The section’smajor task is to collect and identify the fungi of Iran, especially plantpathogens. The section also has a herbarium which forms part of”Herbarium Ministerii Iranici Agriculturae-IRAN” and contains about10,000 specimens of ascomycete, basidiomycete, deuteromycete and oomycetefungi.


Mycological Section of the NationalMuseum of Natural Science, Taipei

The Mycological Section was established in 1991 and currently employsthree research staff. It holds over 4,600 specimens (mostly basidiomycetes andascomycetes) including ca 400 living cultures representing approximately 250species of mainly wood decaying fungi. Copies of the following recentpublications emanating from the Section are available on request:

1. Wu, S.H. 1995. A study of the genus Phanerochaete(Aphyllophorales) with brown subicular hyphae. Mycotaxon 54: 163-172.

2. Chang, T.T. and W.N. Chou. 1995. Antrodia cinnamomeasp. nov. on Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 99: 756-758.

3. Wang, Y.Z. 1995. Notes on coprophilous discomycetesfrom Taiwan II. Bull. Nation. Mus. Nat. Sci. 5: 147-152.

4. Wu, S.H. & C. Losi. 1995. Phanerochaeteparvispora sp. nov. (Aphyllophorales) from Venetian Lagoon, Italy. Mycotaxon 55:543-545.

5. Wu, S.H. 1995. Two new genera of corticioidbasidiomycetes with gloeocystidia and amyloid basidiospores. Mycologia87: 886-890.

6. Wu, S.H. & W.N. Chou. 1995. Four Basidiomycotinanew to Taiwan. Bull. Nation. Mus. Natu. Sci. 6: 139-146.

7. Wu, S.H. 1995. Twelve species of the Aphyllophoralesnew to Taiwan. Fungi. Sci. 10: 9-22.

8. Wu, S.H. 1996. Studies on Gloeocystidiellum sensulato (Basidiomycotina) in Taiwan. Mycotaxon 58

Mushroom Research Laboratory, Taiwan Agricultural ResearchInstitute

The Mushroom Research Laboratory has five senior staff, fourproject assistants and two technicians. The main topics of research are:

(a) breeding of edible mushrooms, including Agaricus bisporus,Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus spp., Agrocybe sp., Auricularia spp. and Tricholomagiganteum; (b) cultivation of edible mushrooms; (c) taxonomy of wild mushroomsand Ganoderma spp.; and (d) cryopreservation of the living cultures ofwild mushrooms, Ganoderma spp. and commercial edible mushrooms.


The Systematic Mycology and LichenologyLaboratory, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

China-Japan Pan AsiaPacific Mycology Forum
28 July – 15 August 2008

Approximately two hundred mycologists from about 17 countriesattended this meeting although the majority was from China and about 65 fromJapan; the rest comprised a sprinkling form other countries (Canada, Malaysia,Thailand). Li Ju was the conference initiator and with his team did a good jobat arranging the meeting. The opening ceremony was very formal and the firstday comprised nine keynote speakers, the first being the Chinese Academician,Jiangchun Wei. The conference lasted four days with topics on mycotoxins,edible and medicinal mushrooms, medical mycology, phylogeny and taxonomy offungi, ecology of fungi and molecular biology and genetics. There wereworkshops on Identification of slime molds, rust fungi, powdery mildews andclinically important fungi. One nice aspect was the students’ oral presentationcontest which gave young mycologists a chance to present their researchfindings.

The week gave mycologists achance to network and plan future collaboration particularly in the Asianregion. Participants were also able to listen to some stimulating and cuttingedge research presentations, as well as some old repeated rehashed researchpresentations. Overall a good event that was well worth attending.

The Systematic Mycology & LichenologyLaboratory (SMLL) was established in 1985.

The Laboratory is an academic research institution wherescientists both from within China and from overseas can conduct fungal andlichen-related research. Both Chinese and foreign researchers may submitapplications to the Laboratory in accordance with the “Guidelines forApplying to SMLL for Research Projects” formulated by theLaboratory. Following approval of a project proposal by the AcademicCouncil, successful applicants are able to work in, and receive researchfunds from, the Laboratory. Foreign researchers are financially supported bythe Laboratory on a reciprocal exchange basis. Chinese and foreignmycologists and lichenologists who are supported by their own institutesare also welcome to conduct their own research at the SMLL. In order to providebasic information for a deeper understanding of modern life sciences, forexploitation and utilization of fungal resources as well as for the control ofharmful fungi, the Laboratory’s research is directed to the comprehensivestudy of natural systems and the evolution of myceteae (includingmyxomycetes, oomycetes, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi). Speciesdiversity among fungi is examined from all angles including morphology,anatomy, ecology, physiology, biochemistry, genetics and biogeography, and atall levels (e.g. population biology, ontogeny, cytology, molecularbiology). Research in the following areas currently receivesupport: molecular evolutionary systematics of the myceteae; cellularsystematics of the myceteae; studies on endangered species or groups among themyceteae which are of economic importance and have potential applications;studies of systematic problems related to myceteae which require immediateresolution in the context of applied research and practice; the utilization,preservation and taxonomy of important mycological resources; novel methods inthe study of myceteae systematics and related ecosystem problems. Theorganizational structure of the SMLL includes a Laboratory Director and DeputyDirector, and a Scientific Council which consists of a Council Director andDeputy Director together with several Council Members. Since 1988, theSMLL has produced an official publication, Mycosystema, which is co-edited byChinese and foreign experts and carries papers on the systematics and evolutionof fungi.

Herbarium Mycolgicum Academiae Sinicae (HMAS) The Herbarium is anational collection of fungi founded in 1953. The collections include allthose (except lichens) previously held in the Mycological &Phytopathological Herbarium of Qinghua University, Fungus Section of theHerbarium of the Institute of Botany, former National Academyof Peiping. The herbarium is funded by a direct grant and isunder the auspices of the Special Foundation for Taxonomic and Floral &Faunal Studies, Academia Sinica. A total of 120000 specimens have beencatalogued including ca. 2000 type specimens, representing 17000 speciesbelonging to 2300 genera (including synonyms). In addition, there are some250,000 items which are still unnamed. Groups represented include the largerbasidiomycetes, discomycetes, plant parasitic fungi, and lichens. Somedried cultures of microfungi are also deposited. The large majority ofspecimens are from China, and some 30,000 foreign specimens originate from 105countries. About 1500-3000 specimens are added each year. TheHerbarium maintains a considerable number of duplicate specimens which areavailable in exchange for named specimens from other countries. Theexchange of specimens is made frequently with a number of herbaria located inEurope, U.S.A., Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and elsewhere.Further informationcan be obtained from: Associate Research Professor Guo Lin, Curator, HerbariumMycolgicum Academiae Sinicae (HMAS), Institute of Microbiology, AcademiaSinica, Beijing 100080, China.


The School of Biological Sciences,The National University of Singapore

Mycology is taught in the School of Biological Sciences under thesubject heading of Plant Biology. In the first two years/levels ofundergraduate study, the fungi constitute small components of three PlantBiology modules, namely Economic Botany, Plant Biodiveristy, and Plant Ecology(under plant-microbe interactions). In the final/third level of study leadingto the first degree (B.Sc.), Mycology is offered as a full 50-hour optionalmodule along with other Plant Biology courses. At this level. mycology is apopular choice with between 60-70% of students normally opting to take themodule. The course focuses on fungal classification, ecology and some aspectsof physiology, and includes six 3-hr laboratory classes/field trips. The roleof fungi as plant pathogens is taught as part of another third year/levelmodule, Plant Pathology, which includes a more extensive coverage of plantviruses. For the B.Sc. Honours Botany Degree (fourth year/level of study),Mycology is again offered as a full optional Plant Biology module. Here, theemphasis is on fungal physiology including growth and reproduction. Usually,about 50-60% of eligible students opt for this module. Honours students arealso required to undertake a research project of about six months duration in achosen area of plant biology. Mycological and fungal plant diseaseprojects are usually popular.

The School has a well-equipped research laboratory for mycologyand plant pathology (fungal pathogens). The current batch of Honours andpostgraduate students are conducting research on marine fungi, fungal airspora,fungal enzymes, fungal chitosan, mycorrhiza, and plant diseases caused byPseudocercospora and Ganoderma species. Collaborations with other specialistswithin the School (with expertise in biochemistry, plant pathology,molecular biology, and developmental biology) and in otherdepartments/faculties (chemistry, paediatrics), has permitted a wide range offungal-related studies to be undertaken. Teaching and research in mycologywithin the School is supported by a small culture collection built up over manyyears. Current M.Sc. and Ph.D students of mycology include nationals fromChina, India and Malaysia with good first degrees and proficiency in English.Their studies are supported by studentships/scholarships from the NationalUniversity of Singapore. Requests for application forms for postgraduatestudies should be directed to: The Registrar, National University of Singapore,Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119260.


The Tropical Mycological Laboratory,Department of Botany, University of Malaysia.

Since its inauguaration, the Laboratory has been host to manyprominent mycologists the world over who have visited on short attachments,during specimen collection trips, or for the purpose of conducting research.The visits have led to the establishment of many jointly-funded collaborativeresearch projects. The Laboratory is well-equipped and is used for the trainingof undergraduate and postgraduate (M.Phil., Ph.D) students in both basic andapplied mycology and in plant biology. The facility also runs short courses onvarious topics including culture collection techniques, mycological methods,and the use and maintenance of the electron microscope. Many of these coursesare conducted in collaboration with overseas experts, and are normally open tostaff of other local universities and research institutions.The Laboratory hasalso served as the venue for numerous national and international seminars andconferences. The research activities of the Laboratory have been documented inmany high quality research papers, and more than 110 new genera/species ofmicrofungi have been recorded. In the latter context, the facility serves as aninternationally recognized reference centre where type material of newMalaysian fungal taxa are maintained. Currently, various microfungi arebeing screened as potential sources of pharmaceutical products.


Department of Biology, The ChineseUniversity of Hong Kong

Mycological-related activities at The Chinese University of HongKong (CUHK) are largely concerned with the study of mushrooms and can betraced back to 1960. This was the year when Shu-ting Chang, now ProfessorEmeritus, first joined the staff of Chung Chi College, one of three academicinstitutions in Hong Kong which, in 1963, amalgamated to form what is now theUniversity. Subsequently, many biologists with widely varying backgrounds andexpertise from teaching and research institutions worldwide have been attractedto CUHK by Professor Chang’s pioneering work with mushrooms. Mushroom-relatedactivities at CUHK can be conveniently described under the headings: Research,Training and International Services At the present time, eight academic staffof the Department of Biology, together with colleagues from the Departments ofAnatomy and Biochemistry, are engaged on some aspect of mushroom-relatedresearch projects. The three major research areas relate to: (i) theproduction, biological evaluation and quality control of’mushroom nutriceuticals’; (ii) the physiological and enzymologicalaspects of mushrooms in relation to substrate utilisation, fruit bodyyields and other bioconversion/bioremediation processes; and (iii)genetics and molecular biology

A rapidly expanding sector of mushroom biotechnology is thedevelopment of mushroom nutriceuticals, a term used to describe a new class ofcompounds extractable from either the mycelium or fruit body of mushrooms andwhich exhibit medicinal and/or tonic qualities and can serve as nutritionalsupplements. Several multi-disciplinary research projects related to mushroomnutriceuticals. These include:
(a) an investigation of the hepatoprotective, antitumour and toxicologicalactivities of mushroom extracts and mushroom secretory products; (b)molecular analysis of the in vivo effect of protein-bound polysaccharidecomplex (PSPC) from Tricholoma sp. on cytokine gene expression; (c)immunomodulation activity of extracellular polysaccharide (STC-20) fromTricholoma; (d) hypolipidaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, hypotensive and otherrelated cardiovascular activities of edible mushroom products; (e)mushrooms as a source of glycosidase inhibitors; (f) dietary fibre contentand composition of the fruiting bodies and mycelium of edible mushrooms.Research projects involving physiological and enzymological aspects ofmushrooms include: (a) the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes (cellulases,hemicellulases and ligninases) from commercially important edible mushroomspecies (e.g. Volvariella volvacea, Flammulina velutipes, Lentinula edodesand Pleurotus spp.; (b) purification, characterisation and secretion ofindividual cellulases from V. volvacea during growth of the fungus on naturalsubstrates; (c) bioconversion of soybean wastes into added-value products bymushroom fungi; (c) use of mushroom biomass, mushroom products and spentmushroom substrate as agents of bioremediation; (d) effect of lignin-relatedphenols on the growth and lignocellulolytic activity of mushroom fungi; (e)nitrogen metabolism in edible mushroom species.

Genetical and molecular biological studies include: (a)isolation and regulation of cellulase genes in the straw mushroom,V. volvacea, and the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus; (b) generation ofmolecular markers for construction of a genetic map, and characterisationof genetic determinants of some phenotypic traits in the Shiitakemushroom, Lentinula edodes; (c) identification and molecular cloning ofdifferentially expressed genes involved in lignocellulose utilisation in L.edodes; (d) identification and molecular cloning of differentially expressedgenes involved in fruit-body development in L. edodes; (e)diversity-generating mechanisms in V.volvacea

Other on-going research which does not fall into these three majorcategories includes: (a) the monitoring and analysis of staphylococcalenterotoxins in V. volvacea; (b) zinc uptake and distribution inselected mushroom fungi and the effects of zinc on growth and fruitbody development.

Since 1991 alone, mushroom-related research has attracted almostUS$850,000 in funding from sources which include the Hong Kong Research GrantsCouncil, the Croucher Foundation, United Nations Industrial DevelopmentOrganization, the British Council and several industrial organisations.
The Department of Biology at CUHK plays a major role in the training of youngscientists, especially those from developing countries, in techniques relatedto mushroom biology and cultivation. During the past 22 years, three Ph.D andeighteen M.Phil Degrees have been conferred on Departmental graduate studentsworking on research projects involving mushrooms. Several workshops,financially supported by the United Nations Educational, Scientific andCultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Development Programme UNDP),and the International Cell Research Organization (ICRO) have been held in theDepartment’s research laboratories and at the mushroom cultivation facilitylocated on the University campus.The University has also hosted severalinternational workshops and conferences wholly or partly concerned withmushroom biology and/or cultivation.Through these conferences, workshops andother meetings, CUHK has provided occasions for the interaction of scientistsand experts from industrialised and developing countries, for youngerscientists to discuss their research activities with more experiencedscientists from different countries, and the opportunity for scientists from differentcountries to develop collaborative research programmes. The Department ofBiology at CUHK is also the Headquarters of the International Mushroom Societyfor the Tropics. In 1991, when UNESCO approved the establishment of the HongKong Microbial Resource Centre (MIRCEN) as the twenty-fourth such centre amongthe global network of MIRCENs, the Department of Biology was selected to be theheadquarters. The main theme of the Hong Kong MIRCEN’s activities isBioconversion Technology which is highly compatible and complementary with manyof the Department’s mushroom-related research programmes especially thoseconcerned with the utilisation of lignocellulosic and other organic wastes andwith bioremediation. The University is also a major contributor to the GlobalNetwork on Mushroom Research and Development constituted by the Food andAgriculture Organization of the United Nations. Professor S.T.Chang is theCoordinator of the Mushroom Germplasm Science Working Group, one of six suchgroups established as part of the network.

In October 1993, the United Nations Industrial DevelopmentOrganization (UNIDO) approved the allocation of funding to establish a Centrefor International Services to Mushroom Biotechnology (CISM BIOTECH) on thecampus of The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). The Centre is currentlyengaged in expanding a Mushroom Biotechnology Database and Information Network(MUSHNET) for the collection and dissemination of information relating tomushroom production and mushroom biotechnology. This comprises publishedliterature relating to the subject areas, primary data available from CUHKrecords and through the World Society for Mushroom Biology and MushroomProducts, and other material available through national databases, governmentreports and other sources of a similar nature. A Mushroom Depository andGenebank for the conservation of mushroom genetic resources is also located atthe Centre. The Centre will provide for technology transfer and services toorganisations in developing countries through training courses, workshops andconsultant activities, and undertake research in many aspects of mushroombiology including cultivation technology. genetics and biology of mushrooms,bioconversion of agricultural wastes, mushroom products, and processing andmarketing. CISM BIOTECH will also interact with regional and nationalnodes/resource centres worldwide in providing the necessary technologicalback-up support for the promotion of regional and national development ofmushroom and mushroom-related industries.

Two members of The Chinese University of Hong Kong’s BiologyDepartment (Professor S.T. Chang and Dr John Buswell), are also activelyinvolved (as Vice-President and Secretary/Treasurer, respectively) in theadministration of the World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Productsestablished in January 1994.

Some recent research paperspublished by Hong Kong mycologists include:

Hyde, K.D., Vrijmoed, L.P. & Hodgkiss, I.J. Tropicalmycological research in Hong Kong. The Mycologist 9:35. (1995).

Sadaba, R.B., Vrijmoed, L.L.P., Jones, E.B.G. & Hodgkiss, I.J.Observations on vertical distribution of fungi associated with standingsenescent Acanthus ilicifolius stems at Mai Po Mangrove, HongKong. Hydrobiologia 295:119-126. (1995).

Hyde, K.D. & Lee, S.Y. Ecology of mangrove fungi and theirrole in nutrient cycling: what gaps occur in ourknowledge? Hydrobiolgia 295:107-118. (1995).

Sadaba, R.B., Vrijmoed, L.L.P., Jones, E.B.G. & Hodgkiss,I.J. Fungal succession and decomposition of exposed Acanthus ilicifoliusstems at Mai Po Mangrove, Hong Kong. In Environmental Research in PearlRiver and Coastal Waters, eds. Wong, C.K., Chu, K.H., Chen, Q.C. & Ma,X.L. Guangdong Higher Education Press, Guangzhou, PRC, 186. (1995).

Wang, H.X., Liu, W.K., Ng, T.B., Ooi, V.E.C. & Chang, S.T.Immunomodulatory and antitumour activities of a polysaccharide-peptide complexfrom a mycelial culture of Tricholoma sp., a local edible mushroom. LifeSciences. 57:269-281. (1995a).

Wang, H.X., Liu, W.K., Ng, T.B., Ooi, V.E.C. & Chang, S.T. Isolationand characterization of two distinct lectins with antiproliferative activityfrom the cultured mycelium of the edible mushroom Tricholoma mongolicum.International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research. 46:508-513.(1995b).

Buswell, J.A., Cai, Y.J. & Chang, S.T. Effect of nutrientnitrogen on manganese peroxidase and laccase production by Lentinula (Lentinus)edodes. FEMS Microbiology


India has over 50 institutes and 150 universities wheremycology-related studies are undertaken, and some 300 activie mycologists.Annually, about 300 mycological research papers are published both in Indianand foreign journals.There are two mycological societies: the MycologicalSociety of India which publishes the journal “Kavaka” (edited byProf. C.V. Subramanian), and the Indian Mycological Society which publishes theIndian Journal of Mycology.

Centre for Advanced Studies inMycology and Plant Pathology, Madras University

The Centre, associated withthe University’s Botany laboratories, is located on the Guindy campus and isone of the important centres of mycology in India. Mycology became a focusfor attention at the Centre about 50 years ago under the leadership of theeminent mycologist and plant pathologist, Professor T.S. Sadasivan. TheCentre’s work on various aspects of mycology was continued by ProfessorC.V. Subramanian, former President of the IMA (1976-1983) and several of hispupils who, either remained in Madras or spread the cause of Mycology to otheruniversities and institutes throughout India. The Centre has become recognizedfor its work on different aspects of ecology, biology and taxonomy of fungi,especially of the Hyphomycetes and Ascomycetes, and today is an importantcentre for work on the taxonomy of the Agaricales.

Department of Plant Pathology,Rajasthan Agricultural University at Udaipur

Mycology forms an integral part of the teaching and researchactivities of the Department of Plant Pathology at the University. Mycology istaught at both undergraduate (one course) and postgraduate (three M.Sc. and onePh.D courses) levels. In the past, research interests included fungalphysiology, taxonomy of plant pathogenic fungi particularly rusts, and thepowdery and downy mildews. Currently, in addition to fungal ecologyand taxonomy, the main research interests are in the biological control ofplant pathogenic fungi (in collaboration with the university’s own Departmentof Biochemistry and with the Department of Biological Sciences, University ofExeter, United Kingdom), race identification in Colletotrichum (incollaboration with the International Crop Research Institute of Semi-AridTropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad), and mushroom cultivation. The Department ofPlant Pathology, with assistance from over 100 plant pathologists workingat a number of research institutions and universities throughout Rajasthan, isalso actively engaged in the development of chemical treatments for controllingboth fungal and bacterial diseases. Moreover, it provides training forExtension Officers employed by the Department of Agriculture, Government ofRajasthan, operates a plant disease identification service for thestate’s farmers, and suggests appropriate measures to combat disease outbreaks.During the last decade, a number of eminent mycologists from overseas havevisited the Department.

Culture Collection & Herbarium,ARI, New Delhi

India has a national culture collection and herbarium located atthe Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, IARI, New Delhi which has been acentre for mycologically-related activities for over 75 years. In addition, anew Culture Collection Centre has been established recently at Chandigarhwith assistance from the Department of Science and Technology, Government ofIndia.


Some recent publications emanating from this Department areas follows:

Adhikari, M.K. Mycodiversity in Nepal: a glimpse. NahsonBulletin 3-4:4-6. (1995).

Adhikari, M.K. Toxic and medicinal mushrooms fromNepal. Apinmap Scamap Network I:1-2. (1995).

Budathoki, U. & Singh, P.N. Some new black mildews fromKathmandu Valley. Indian Phytopathology 47:377-380. (1994).

Budathoki, U. & Singh, S.K. Three new species ofPseudocarospora from the Nepal Himalaya. Myco. Res. 99:230-232.(1995).

Budathoki, U. & Singh S.K. A new dictyosporic folicolousHyphomycete from Kathmandu Valley (Nepal). Indian Phytopath 48:1.(1995).

Manandhar, V. & Adhikari M.K. Lepiota and its alliedgenera from Nepal II. Nahson Bulletin 1:2-3. (1995).

Manandhar, V. Rust on medicinal plant Jasminum – a new report fromNepal. Apinmap Scamap Network 1:3-4. (1995).


Culture Collections in Thailand containing mycological specimensinclude those located at: (i) Thailand Academic Agricultural Division of theMinistry of Agriculture where various filamentous fungi (basidiomycetes) andmushroom species are maintained, and (ii) Thailand MicrobiologicalResources Centre (MIRCEN) which holds various filamentous fungiand yeasts.

Some recent mycological publications include: Puttikhunt,C., Pichyangkura, S. & Kinoshita, S. Production of linamarasefrom the yeast Hansenula anomala. 2nd Int. Sci Meeting Proceeding. CassavaBiotech. Network (CIAT) II: 439-450. (1995).

Punnapayak, H. & Hoffman, J.J. Ansonia spp. as potential fuelcrops for arid lands. World. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 73: 85-87.

HigherDegrees Awarded in 1995/96

Higher degrees awarded within the AMC area in 1995/96 include:

Masters Degree:

KUO, Hon-Chi. (1996). Taxonomic study of Uredinales on Cyperaceaeof Taiwan. Dept. of Botany, National University of Taiwan, Taipei.

MAN, Sulaiman bin. (1995). Taxonomy and distributionof Hyphomycetes on decaying aerial parts of palms in Malaysia. Departmentof Botany, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

MOI, Llew Gee. (1995). A taxonomic study of litter-inhabitingdematiaceous Hyphomycetes in Malaysia. Department of Botany, University ofMalaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

SEE, Loh Leh. (1995). Taxonomy and distribution of Zygomycetes inMalaysia. Department of Botany, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

PhD Degree:

BAI Feng-yan. (1995). The genus Candida of China. Graduate Schoolof Academia Sinica, Beijing, China.

CHEN, Chee-Jen. (1995). Morphology and molecularphylogenietic relationships on Tremella and related genera (Tremellales,Heterobasidiomycetes) in Taiwan. Department of Botany, National TaiwanUniversity, Taipei, Taiwan.

GUO, Cheng-liang. (1995). Phylogenetic relationships of someTilletia species in China based on ribosomal DNA RFLPs analyses. NortheastForestry University, Harbin, China.

WANG, Qi. (1995). Systematic studies on the Trichiales(Myxomycetes) from China. Shenyang Agricultural University/Jilin AgriculturalUniversity, Changchun, China.

WANG, Tien-Cheng. (1995). Cultural behavior of Pseudocercosporafuligena, the cause of tomato black leaf mold, and host resistance. Departmentof Plant Pathology, National Chung-Hsin University, Taichung, Taiwan.

New Fungirecorded in 1995


Ascochyta araliae J.D. Sun & J.K. Bai, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:107. (1995). On Aralia elata (Miq.) Semm. Type: MHSAU1977 in Shenyang Agricultural University.

Ascochyta macckiae J.D. Sun & J.K. Bai, Acta Mycol. Sin.14:109. (1995). On Macckia amurensis Rupr. & Maxim. Type: MHSAU1978, Shenyang Agricultural University.

Ascochyta nicandrae J.D. Sun & J.K. Bai, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:110. (1995). On Nicandra physaloides Gaerth. Type: MHSAU1975, Shenyang Agricultural University.

Ascochyta zanthoxyli J.D. Sun & J.K. Bai, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:111. (1995). On Zanthoxylum planispinum Sieb. &Zucc. Type: MHSAU 1251, Shenyang Agricultural University.

Asteridiella gaylussaciae Hansf. var. craibiodendri G.Z.Jiang, Acta Mycol. Sin. 14:5. (1995). On Craibiodendron stellatum(Pierre) Smith. Type: HMAS 45733, Beijing.

Asterina aquilariae Y.S. Ouyang & B. Song, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:242. (1995). On Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. Type:GDIM 78141, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou.

Asterina garciniicola Y.S. Ouyang & B. Song, ActaMycol. Sin. 14:244. (1995). On Garcinia multiflora Champ. Type:GDIM 92032, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou.

Coleosporium synuricola Y. Xue & L.P. Shao, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:248. (1995). On Synurus deltoides Nakai. Type: Y. Xue93001 (holotype in Northwest Forestry University, isotype in HMAS).

Eurotium aridicola H.Z. Kong & Z.T. Qi, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:87. (1995). Isolated from animal dung in Tibet. Type:HMAS 62768; living culture AS 3.4673 (Institute of Microbiology, AcademiaSinica, Beijing).

Eurotium costiforme H.Z. Kong & Z.T. Qi, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:10. (1995). (Anam.: Aspergillus costiformis Kong& Qi). Isolated from moldy paper-box, Hebei. Type: HMAS 62766; livingculture AS 3.4664.

Eurotium fimicola H.Z. Kong & Z.T. Qi, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:86. (1995). (Anam.: Aspergillus fimicola Kong & Qi).Isolated from animal dung in Tibet. Type: HMAS 62769; living culture AS3.4674.

Eurotium parviverruculosum H.Z. Kong & Z.T. Qi, ActaMycol. Sin. 14:12. (1995). (Anam.: Aspergillusparviverruculosus Kong & Qi). Isolated from soil, Hebei. Type:HMAS 62767; Living culture AS 3.4665.

Ganoderma renii S.C. He, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:104. (1995). Type: H1495 (HMBAG, Academia Guizhouensis,Guiyang).

Ganoderma zhenningense S.C. He, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:24. (1995). Type: H1425 (HMBAG, Academia Guizhouensis,Guiyang).

Lobaria yulongensis J.B. Chen, Acta Mycol. Sin. 14:261.(1995). Type: Ahti, Chen & Wang no.46339 (HMAS) (lichen).

Lophodermium confluens Y.R. Lin, C.L. Hou & W.F.Zheng, Acta Mycol. Sin. 14:93. (1995). On Pinus armandiFranch. Type: ACAFP 67307 (Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei).

Lophodermium harbinense Y.R. Lin, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:179. (1995). On Juniperus sibirica Burgsd. Type: ACAFP67037.

Marssonina zanthoxyli Y.J. Lu & G.L. Li, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:184. (1995). On Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Type: Lu& Yang 911021 (Shandong Agricultural University, Taian).

Meliola lianchangensis G.Z. Jiang, Acta Mycol. Sin.14:2. (1995). On Dioscorea scortechinii Br. & Burk. var. parvifloraBr. & Burk. Type: HMAS 24303.

Meliola mitragynicola Dieght. var. wendlandiicola G.Z.Jiang, Acta Mycol. Sin. 14:3. (1995). On Wendlandiatinctoria DC. Type: HMAS 44486.

Microsphaera exochordae Q.X. Lu & G.Z. Lu, ActaMycol. Sin. 14:172. (1995). On Exochorda serratifolia Moore. Type:HMSAU 1992 (Shenyang Agircultural University, Shengyang).

Oudemansiella fanjingshanensis M.Zang & X.L.Wu, Acta Mycol. Sin. 14:50. (1995). Type: HKAS 39316 (KunmingInstitute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Kunming).

Phallus megacephalus M. Zang, Acta Mycol. Sin.14:251. (1995). Type: HKAS 28176.

Phyllosticta chaenomelesicola L. Yu & J.K. Bai, ActaMycol. Sin. 14:192. (1995). On Chaenomeles speciosa Nakai.Type: HMSAU 1981 (Shenyang Agricualtural University, Shenyang).

Phyllosticta convallaricola L. Yu & J.K. Bai, Acta Mycol.Sin. 14:193. (1995). On Convallaria keisei Miq. Type: HMSAU 995.

Plasmopara sanguisorbae C.J. Li, Z.Q. Yuan & Z.Y.Zhao, Acta Mycol. Sin. 14:161. (1995). On Sanguisorba officinalisL. Type: HMAAC 001210 (Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi).

Ploioderma destruens Y.R. Lin & C.L. Hou, Acta Mycol. Sin.(1995). On Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook. Type: ACAFP 67485 (AnhuiAgricultural University, Hefei).

Sclerotinia ginseng C.R. Wang, C.F. Chen & J.Chen, Acta Mycol. Sin. 14:187. (1995). On Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. Type: HMSAU 800719 (Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang).

Sinoboletus guizhouensis M. Zang & X.L. Wu, ActaMycol. Sin. 14:251. (1995). Type: HKAS 29186 (Kunming Institute of Botany,Academia Sinica, Kunming).

Hong Kong

Dept. of Ecology & Biodiversity,University of Hong Kong

The genus Phyllachora from Australia. Observations on P.pseudostromatica, P. Melaleucae and P. shivasia sp. nov. from the hostMelaleuca. Pearce, C.A. & Hyde, K.D. MycologicalResearch 99:1253-1260 (1995).

The genus Massarina, with a description of M. eburnea and anannotated list of Massarina names. Hyde, K.D. MycologicalResearch 99:291-296 (1995).

Checklist of plant diseases of the Western Province of Papua NewGuinea. Hyde, K.D. & Philemon, E. Australian Plant Pathology23:69-76. (1995).

Guignardia candeloflamma sp. nov. causing leaf spots of Pinangasp. Fröhlich, J. & Hyde, K.D. MycologicalResearch 99:110-112. (1995).

Fungi from palms. XIX. Appendicospora coryphae, a newname for Apiosporella coryphae. Hyde, K.D. Sydowia 47:223-229.(1995).

The genus Phyllachora from Australia: and two new species; P.victoriensis and P. hakeaicola from Hakea. Pearce, C.A. & Hyde,K.D. Mycological Research 99:1261-1267. (1995).

Astrosphaeriella fronsicola sp. nov. associated with leaf spots onOraniospsis and other palms. Fröhlich, J. & Hyde, K.D. MycologicalResearch 99:453-459. (1995).

Maculatipalma frondicola gen. et sp. nov. causing leaf spots onpalms in north Queensland with descriptions of related genera; Apioplagiostomaand Plagiostoma. Fröhlich, J. & Hyde, K.D. Mycological Research 99:727-734. (1995).

Fungi from palms. XVIII. The Genus Anthostomella, withten new species. Hyde, K.D. Nova Hedwigia. (1995). In press.

Mycospharerella palmicola associated with leaf spots of Cocosnucifera in Australia, Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea. Hyde, K.D. &Fröhlich, J. Mycological Research 99:704-706. (1995).

Tropical Australian Freshwater Fungi. IX. Vaginatisporaaquatica gen. et sp. nov. Hyde, K.D. Nova Hedwigia 61:233-241. (1995).

The genus Phyllachora from Australia. Phyllachora sagerettiaesp. nov. from Sageretia hamosa. Pearce, C.A., Hyde, K.D. & Shivas, R.G.Mycological Research 99:554-556.(1995).

Tropical Australia freshwater fungi.VII. New genera andspecies of ascomycetes. Hyde, K.D. NovaHedwigia 61:119-140. (1995).

Fungi from rachides of Livistona in the Western Province of PapuaNew Guinea. Hyde, K.D. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society116:315-324. (1995).

Fungi from palms. XVII. The genus Fasciatispora, withnotes on Amphisphaerella. Hyde, K.D. Nova Hedwigia 61:249-268. (1995).

Fungi from palms. XV. Sabalicola gen. nov., and a newcombination for Anthostomella sabalensioides. Hyde, K.D. Nova Hedwigia60:595-598. (1995).

Fungi from palms. XVI. Cocoicola gen. nov. Hyde,K.D. Nova Hedwigia 60:599-604. (1995).

Fungi from Palms. XXI. The genus Seynesia. Hyde, K.D. Sydowia47:199-212. (1995).

Two new interesting ascomycetes from Irian Jaya and Papua NewGuinea. Hyde, K.D. Mycotaxon 55:275-282. (1995).

Tropical Australian Freshwater Fungi. VIII. Bertiaconvolutispora sp. nov. Hyde, K.D. Nova Hedwigia 61:141-146.(1995).

Fungi from palms. XX. Caudatispora palmicola gen. et sp.nov. from in Ecuador. Hyde, K.D. & Fröhlich,J. Sydowia 47:230-235. (1995).

Lophiosphaera asiana sp. nov. from Thailand mangroves. Hyde,K.D. Mycotaxon 55:283-288. (1995).

Eutypella naqsii sp. nov. from interitidal Avicennia. Hyde, K.D.Mycological Research 99:1462-1464. (1995).

Fungi from palms.XX.The genus Guignardia. Hyde, K.D. Sydowia.47:180-198. (1995).

Fungi from palms. XXIII. Rachidicola gen et sp. nov. Hyde,K.D. & Fröhlich, J. Sydowia 47:217-222. (1995).

Fungi from palms XXIV. Ascotaiwania palmicola sp. nov. frompalms in Ecuador. Hyde, K.D. Sydowia 47:213-215. (1995).

Stiblella holoboluva sp. nov. from the Philippines. Seifert,K., Stanley, S. & Hyde, K.D. Sydowia 47:258-263. (1995).


In the year 1994-95 about 40 species of mushroom and other plantparasitic fungi have been collected from different areas (e.g. KathmanduValley, Jumla, Mustang, Pokhara), identified and preserved. These included sixspecies of Lepiota, one species of Aecidium and one species of Sporosoriumwhich are reported as new to Nepal.


Acantharia chaetomoides; Antostomella rostrospora; A. taiwanensis;Bertia biseptata;

Gnomonia lithoccarpicola; Gnomoniella lithocarpicola; Micropeltissymploci; Rosenscheldiella perseae; Schizothyrium millettiae;Tubeufia sentosa. Hsieh, W.H., C.Y. Chen and A. Sivanesan. Taiwanfungi: new species and new records of ascomycetes. Mycol. Res. 99:917-931. (1995).

Antrodia cinnamomea. Chang, T.T. and W.N. Chou. Antrodiacinnamomea sp. nov. on Cinnamomum kanehirai in Taiwan. Mycol. Res.99:756-758. (1995).

Ardhachandra prolatofusiformis. Chen, J.L. and S.S. Tzean.A newspecies of Ardhachandra from Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 99:364-366. (1995).

Aspergillus taichungensis. Yaguchi, T., A. Someya and S. Udagawa.Aspergillus taichungensis, a new species from Taiwan. Mycoscience 36:421-424. (1995).

Chaetosphaeria capitata; *Pseudofuscophialis lignicola. Sivanesan,A. and H.S. Chang. Pseudofuscophialis lignicola sp. nov. andChaetosphaeria capitata sp. nov. from wood in Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 99:711-716. (1995).

Entrophospora kentinensis; Glomus chimonobambusae. Wu, C.G., Y.S.Liu, Y.L. Hwuang, Y.P. Wang and C.C. Chao. Glomales of Taiwan: V. Glomuschimonobambusae and Entrophospora kentinensis, spp.nov. Mycotaxon 53: 283-294. (1995).

Halosarpheia aquadulcis. Hsieh, S.Y., H.S. Chang, E.B.G. Jones,S.J. Read and S.T. Moss. Halosarpheia aquadulcis sp. nov., a new lignicolous,freshwater ascomycetes from Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 99: 49-53. (1995).

*Pareutypella nematoceras; P. sulcata. Yu, Y.M. and J.D.Rogers. Pareutypella gen. nov. for two long-ostiolate pyrenomycetes fromTaiwan. Mycologia 87: 891-895. (1995).

Phellinus eugeniae. Chang, T.T. Phellinus eugeniae sp. nov.on Eugenia jambus in Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 99: 1527-1528. (1995).

**Laboulbenia exigua Thaxter var. melanolabiata Terada.Terada, K. Laboulbenia exigua and related taxa (Ascomycetes,Laboulbeniales). Mycoscience 36: 293-309. (1995).

**Pleurotus cystidiosusvar. formosensis J.M. Moncalva. Moncalva, J.M. Pleurotus cystidiosus var.formosensis var. nov.: an unusual Pleurotus collection of subgenusCoremiopleurotus from Taiwan. Mycol. Res. 99:1479-1482. 1995.

New records:

Allochytridium expandens Salkin; Catenochytriumcarolinianum Berdan; Chytriomyces hyalinus Karling; Entophlyctisconfervae-glomeratae (Cienkowski)Sparrow; Rhizophlyctis variabilisKarling; R. mastigotrichis (Nowak.) Foscher; Rhizophydium chaetiferum Sparrow;R. haynaldii (Schaarschmidt) Fischer; R. laterale (Braun)Rabenhorst. Chen, S.F. and C.Y. Chien. Some chytrids of Taiwan(I). Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 36: 235-241 (1995).

Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Br.) Sacc. subsp. similis(Bored.) Corner & Bas.; A. rufoferruginea Hongo; A. vaginata var.puncata (Cleland & Cgeel) Gulb.; A. virosa (Fr.) Bertillon;Baeospora mycosura (Fr.:Fr.) Sing.; Boletus violaceofuscus Chiu;Camarophyllus virgineus (Wulf:Fr.) Kummer; Clavicorona pyxidata (Pers.:Fr.)Doty Clavulina cinerea (Bull.:Fr.) Schroet; Clavulinopsismiyabeana (S.Ito) S.Ito; Copelandia cyanescens (Berk. & Br.)Sing.; Coltricia cinnamomea (Pers.) Murr.; Cordycepssubmilitarius Henn.; Crepidotus badiofloccosus Imai; Cyptotramaasprata (Berk.) Redhead & Ginns; Gomphidius maculatus (Scop.)Fr.; Gomphus floccosus (Schw.) Sing.; Gyromitraesculenta (Pers.) Fr.; Hygrocybe psittacina (Schaeff. :Fr.) Wunsche;Inocybe calamistrata (Fr.:Fr.) Gull.; Laccaria ohiensis (Mont.)Sing.; L. vinaceoavellanea Hongo; Lactarius castanopsidis Hongo; L.controversus (Pers.:Fr.) Fr.; L. gerardii Peck; L.laeticolorus (Imai) Imazeki; L. lignyotus Fr. var.marginatus (Smith & Hesler) Hesler & Smith; L.subvellereus Peck; Lepiota cinnamomea Hongo; Leucocoprinusbirnbaumii (Corda) Sing.; Oligoporus caesius (Scharad.: Fr.) Gilbn. &Ryv.; Panus fulves (Berk.) Pegler & Rayner; Phaeolepiota aurea (Matt.:Fr.) Maire; Phellinus hartigii (Allesch. & Schnabl.) Imaz; Pluteusleoninus (Schaeff: Fr.) Kummer ; P. petasatus (Fr.) Gillet;Pseudocolus fusiformis Lloyd; Pycnoporus coccineus (Fr.) Bond.& Sing.; Rhizina undulata Fr. ; Russula compacta Forst &Peck apud Peck; R. mariae Peck; Strobilomycesseminudus Hongo; Strobilurus stephanocystis (Hora) Sing.;Stropharia rugosoannulata Farlow; Suillus subluteus (Peck)Snell; Tylopilus porphyrosporus (Fr.) A.H. Smith & Thiers; T.virens (Chiu) Hongo; Volvariella subtaylori Hongo. Chen, C.M.and H.W. Huang. Survey of wild mushrooms in Nantou county. in “TheBiological Resources of Nantou county: A Preliminary Bioinventory Report”p.239-254. Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute. (1995).

Antrodiella cf. romelii (Donk) Niemela; Asterostromamusciola (Berk. & Curt.) Massee; Brevicellicium olivascens(Bres.) Larss. & Hjortst; Ceriporia viridans (Berk. & Br.)Donk; Ceriporiopsis cf. mucida (Pers:Fr.) Gilbn.; Lophariacinerascens (Schw.) G.H. Cunn.; Oxyporus cuneatus (Murr.) Aoshima;Plicatura crispa (Pers.:Fr.) Rea ; Rigidoporus vincta (Berk.) Ryv.;Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) John Erikss.; Skeletocutis alborcremea A.David; Steccherinum robustius (John Erikss. & Lund.) John Erikss. Wu, S.H.Twelve species of the Aphyllophorales new to Taiwan. Fung. Sci. 10:9-22. (1995).

Circinella musae (Sorokine) Berlese & de Toni. Ho, H.M.Notes on two coprophilous species of the genus Circinella (Mucorales) fromTaiwan. Fung. Sci. 10: 29-32 (1995).

Dichopleuropus spathulatus Reid Elmerinacladophora (Berk.) Bres.; Gyrodontium versicolor (Berk. & Br.)Mass G.; Thelephora fuscella (Cesati) Lloyd. Wu, S.H. and W.N. Chou. Four basidiomycotinanew to Taiwan. Bull. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci. 6: 139-146 (1995).

Didymium lenticulare Thind & Lakhanpal. Chung, C.H.and C.H. Liu. Didymium lenticulare Thind & Lakhanpal (Physarales,Myxomycetes) – New to Taiwan. Taiwania 40: 375-380 (1995).

Dimerella epiphylla (Muell. Arg.) Mulme. Chung, C.H. Notes onsome folicolous lichenized fungi from Taiwan. Tawania.

1-156 (1995).

Humicola insolens var. thermoidea (Cooney & Emerson)Ellis; Myceliophthora fergusii (Klopotek)van Oorschot; M.hinnulea Awao & Udagawa. Chen, K.Y. and Z.C. Chen. Three newrecords of thermophilic fungi from Taiwan. Taiwania 40: 129-138(1995).

Leucothecium coprophilum Vulldosera & Guarro. Yaguchi,T., A. Someya and S. Udagawa. Two interesting cleistothecial Ascomycetes fromsoils. Mycoscience 36: 151-154 (1995a).

Stemonitis axifera var. smithii (Macbride)Hagelstein; S. herbatica Peck. Chung, Ch.H. and C.H. Liu.First reportof fimicolous Myxomycetes from Taiwan. Fung. Sci. 10: 33-35 (1995).

* New genus

** New varieties

Recent Mycological BookPublications


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The primary function of the Newsletter of the Asian Mycologica lCommittee (AMC) is to inform members of mycological-related activities within the region served by the Committee. While only a restricted range of items makeup this first issue, the ultimate aim is to create a  recognised and sought-after source of information for mycologists everywhere. Future editions are expected to contain major feature articles, a `letters column’  for members to express their personal views on various matters relating to the role of  AMC and its future development, and any other sections that members would like to see included and to which they may wish to contribute.

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